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عزيزي زائر دليل الهاتف و بدالة أرقام الإمارات تم إعداد وإختيار هذا الموضوع Genetically modified food فإن كان لديك ملاحظة او توجيه يمكنك مراسلتنا من خلال الخيارات الموجودة بالموضوع.. وكذلك يمكنك زيارة القسم en, وهنا نبذه عنها en وتصفح المواضيع المتنوعه... آخر تحديث للمعلومات بتاريخ اليوم 23/09/2022

Genetically modified food

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From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia


Derivative products



Corn starch and starch sugars including syrups

Starch or amylum is a polysaccharide produced by all green plants as an energy store. Pure starch is a white tasteless and odourless powder. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight.

Starch can be further modified to create modified starch for specific purposes including creation of many of the sugars in processed foods. They include:

Maltodextrin a lightly hydrolyzed starch product used as a bland-tasting filler and thickener.
Various glucose syrups also called corn syrups in the US viscous solutions used as sweeteners and thickeners in many kinds of processed foods.
Dextrose commercial glucose prepared by the complete hydrolysis of starch.
High fructose syrup made by treating dextrose solutions with the enzyme glucose isomerase until a substantial fraction of the glucose has been converted to fructose.
Sugar alcohols such as maltitol erythritol sorbitol mannitol and hydrogenated starch hydrolysate are sweeteners made by reducing sugars.

Lecithin

Lecithin is a naturally occurring lipid. It can be found in egg yolks and oil-producing plants. It is an emulsifier and thus is used in many foods. Corn soy and safflower oil are sources of lecithin though the majority of lecithin commercially available is derived from soy. [page needed] Sufficiently processed lecithin is often undetectable with standard testing practices. [failed verification] According to the FDA no evidence shows or suggests hazard to the public when lecithin is used at common levels. Lecithin added to foods amounts to only 2 to 10 percent of the 1 to 5 g of phosphoglycerides consumed daily on average. Nonetheless consumer concerns about GM food extend to such products. [better source needed] This concern led to policy and regulatory changes in Europe in 2000 [citation needed] when Regulation (EC) 50/2000 was passed which required labelling of food containing additives derived from GMOs including lecithin.[citation needed] Because of the difficulty of detecting the origin of derivatives like lecithin with current testing practices European regulations require those who wish to sell lecithin in Europe to employ a comprehensive system of Identity preservation (IP). [verification needed] [page needed]


Sugar

The US imports 10% of its sugar while the remaining 90% is extracted from sugar beet and sugarcane. After deregulation in 2005 glyphosate-resistant sugar beet was extensively adopted in the United States. 95% of beet acres in the US were planted with glyphosate-resistant seed in 2011. GM sugar beets are approved for cultivation in the US Canada and Japan; the vast majority are grown in the US. GM beets are approved for import and consumption in Australia Canada Colombia EU Japan Korea Mexico New Zealand Philippines the Russian Federation and Singapore. Pulp from the refining process is used as animal feed. The sugar produced from GM sugar beets contains no DNA or protein – it is just sucrose that is chemically indistinguishable from sugar produced from non-GM sugar beets. Independent analyses conducted by internationally recognized laboratories found that sugar from Roundup Ready sugar beets is identical to the sugar from comparably grown conventional (non-Roundup Ready) sugar beets.


Vegetable oil

Most vegetable oil used in the US is produced from GM crops canola corn cotton and soybeans. Vegetable oil is sold directly to consumers as cooking oil shortening and margarine and is used in prepared foods. There is a vanishingly small amount of protein or DNA from the original crop in vegetable oil. Vegetable oil is made of triglycerides extracted from plants or seeds and then refined and may be further processed via hydrogenation to turn liquid oils into solids. The refining process removes all or nearly all non-triglyceride ingredients. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) offer an alternative to conventional fats and oils. The length of a fatty acid influences its fat absorption during the digestive process. Fatty acids in the middle position on the glycerol molecules appear to be absorbed more easily and influence metabolism more than fatty acids on the end positions. Unlike ordinary fats MCTs are metabolized like carbohydrates. They have exceptional oxidative stability and prevent foods from turning rancid readily.


Other uses



Animal feed

Livestock and poultry are raised on animal feed much of which is composed of the leftovers from processing crops including GM crops. For example approximately 43% of a canola seed is oil. What remains after oil extraction is a meal that becomes an ingredient in animal feed and contains canola protein. Likewise the bulk of the soybean crop is grown for oil and meal. The high-protein defatted and toasted soy meal becomes livestock feed and dog food. 98% of the US soybean crop goes for livestock feed. In 2011 49% of the US maize harvest was used for livestock feed (including the percentage of waste from distillers grains). "Despite methods that are becoming more and more sensitive tests have not yet been able to establish a difference in the meat milk or eggs of animals depending on the type of feed they are fed. It is impossible to tell if an animal was fed GM soy just by looking at the resulting meat dairy or egg products. The only way to verify the presence of GMOs in animal feed is to analyze the origin of the feed itself."

A 2012 literature review of studies evaluating the effect of GM feed on the health of animals did not find evidence that animals were adversely affected although small biological differences were occasionally found. The studies included in the review ranged from 90 days to two years with several of the longer studies considering reproductive and intergenerational effects.

Enzymes produced by genetically modified microorganisms are also integrated into animal feed to enhance availability of nutrients and overall digestion. These enzymes may also provide benefit to the gut microbiome of an animal as well as hydrolyse antinutritional factors present in the feed.


Proteins

Rennet is a mixture of enzymes used to coagulate milk into cheese. Originally it was available only from the fourth stomach of calves and was scarce and expensive or was available from microbial sources which often produced unpleasant tastes. Genetic engineering made it possible to extract rennet-producing genes from animal stomachs and insert them into bacteria fungi or yeasts to make them produce chymosin the key enzyme. The modified microorganism is killed after fermentation. Chymosin is isolated from the fermentation broth so that the Fermentation-Produced Chymosin (FPC) used by cheese producers has an amino acid sequence that is identical to bovine rennet. The majority of the applied chymosin is retained in the whey. Trace quantities of chymosin may remain in cheese.

FPC was the first artificially produced enzyme to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. FPC products have been on the market since 1990 and as of 2015 had yet to be surpassed in commercial markets. In 1999 about 60% of US hard cheese was made with FPC. Its global market share approached 80%. By 2008 approximately 80% to 90% of commercially made cheeses in the US and Britain were made using FPC.

In some countries recombinant (GM) bovine somatotropin (also called rBST or bovine growth hormone or BGH) is approved for administration to increase milk production. rBST may be present in milk from rBST treated cows but it is destroyed in the digestive system and even if directly injected into the human bloodstream has no observable effect on humans. The FDA World Health Organization American Medical Association American Dietetic Association and the National Institutes of Health have independently stated that dairy products and meat from rBST-treated cows are safe for human consumption. However on 30 September 2010 the United States Court of Appeals Sixth Circuit analyzing submitted evidence found a "compositional difference" between milk from rBGH-treated cows and milk from untreated cows. The court stated that milk from rBGH-treated cows has: increased levels of the hormone Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1); higher fat content and lower protein content when produced at certain points in the cow's lactation cycle; and more somatic cell counts which may "make the milk turn sour more quickly".


Livestock







Genetically modified livestock are organisms from the group of cattle sheep pigs goats birds horses and fish kept for human consumption whose genetic material (DNA) has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. In some cases the aim is to introduce a new trait to the animals which does not occur naturally in the species i.e. transgenesis.

A 2003 review published on behalf of Food Standards Australia New Zealand examined transgenic experimentation on terrestrial livestock species as well as aquatic species such as fish and shellfish. The review examined the molecular techniques used for experimentation as well as techniques for tracing the transgenes in animals and products as well as issues regarding transgene stability.

Some mammals typically used for food production have been modified to produce non-food products a practice sometimes called Pharming.


Salmon







A GM salmon awaiting regulatory approval since 1997 was approved for human consumption by the American FDA in November 2015 to be raised in specific land-based hatcheries in Canada and Panama.


Controversies








The genetically modified foods controversy consists of a set of disputes over the use of food made from genetically modified crops. The disputes involve consumers farmers biotechnology companies governmental regulators non-governmental organizations environmental and political activists and scientists. The major disagreements include whether GM foods can be safely consumed harm the environment and/or are adequately tested and regulated. The objectivity of scientific research and publications has been challenged. Farming-related disputes include the use and impact of pesticides seed production and use side effects on non-GMO crops/farms and potential control of the GM food supply by seed companies.

The conflicts have continued since GM foods were invented. They have occupied the media the courts local regional national governments and international organizations.[citation needed]


History








Human-directed genetic manipulation of food began with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection at about 10 500 to 10 100 BC. :1 The process of selective breeding in which organisms with desired traits (and thus with the desired genes) are used to breed the next generation and organisms lacking the trait are not bred is a precursor to the modern concept of genetic modification (GM). :1 :1 With the discovery of DNA in the early 1900s and various advancements in genetic techniques through the 1970s it became possible to directly alter the DNA and genes within food.

Genetically modified microbial enzymes were the first application of genetically modified organisms in food production and were approved in 1988 by the US Food and Drug Administration. In the early 1990s recombinant chymosin was approved for use in several countries. Cheese had typically been made using the enzyme complex rennet that had been extracted from cows' stomach lining. Scientists modified bacteria to produce chymosin which was also able to clot milk resulting in cheese curds.

The first genetically modified food approved for release was the Flavr Savr tomato in 1994. Developed by Calgene it was engineered to have a longer shelf life by inserting an antisense gene that delayed ripening. China was the first country to commercialize a transgenic crop in 1993 with the introduction of virus-resistant tobacco. In 1995 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Potato was approved for cultivation making it the first pesticide producing crop to be approved in the US. Other genetically modified crops receiving marketing approval in 1995 were: canola with modified oil composition Bt maize cotton resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil Bt cotton glyphosate-tolerant soybeans virus-resistant squash and another delayed ripening tomato.

With the creation of golden rice in 2000 scientists had genetically modified food to increase its nutrient value for the first time.

By 2010 29 countries had planted commercialized biotech crops and a further 31 countries had granted regulatory approval for transgenic crops to be imported. The US was the leading country in the production of GM foods in 2011 with twenty-five GM crops having received regulatory approval. In 2015 92% of corn 94% of soybeans and 94% of cotton produced in the US were genetically modified strains.

The first genetically modified animal to be approved for food use was AquAdvantage salmon in 2015. The salmon were transformed with a growth hormone-regulating gene from a Pacific Chinook salmon and a promoter from an ocean pout enabling it to grow year-round instead of only during spring and summer.

In April 2016 a white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) modified using the CRISPR technique received de facto approval in the United States after the USDA said it would not have to go through the agency's regulatory process. The agency considers the mushroom exempt because the editing process did not involve the introduction of foreign DNA.

The most widely planted GMOs are designed to tolerate herbicides. By 2006 some weed populations had evolved to tolerate some of the same herbicides. Palmer amaranth is a weed that competes with cotton. A native of the southwestern US it traveled east and was first found resistant to glyphosate in 2006 less than 10 years after GM cotton was introduced.


Crops








Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are genetically modified plants that are used in agriculture. The first crops developed were used for animal or human food and provide resistance to certain pests diseases environmental conditions spoilage or chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to a herbicide). The second generation of crops aimed to improve the quality often by altering the nutrient profile. Third generation genetically modified crops could be used for non-food purposes including the production of pharmaceutical agents biofuels and other industrially useful goods as well as for bioremediation. GM crops have been produced to improve harvests through reducing insect pressure increase nutrient value and tolerate different abiotic stresses. As of 2018 the commercialised crops are limited mostly to cash crops like cotton soybean maize and canola and the vast majority of the introduced traits provide either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance.

The majority of GM crops have been modified to be resistant to selected herbicides usually a glyphosate or glufosinate based one. Genetically modified crops engineered to resist herbicides are now more available than conventionally bred resistant varieties. Most currently available genes used to engineer insect resistance come from the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium and code for delta endotoxins. A few use the genes that encode for vegetative insecticidal proteins. The only gene commercially used to provide insect protection that does not originate from B. thuringiensis is the Cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI). CpTI was first approved for use cotton in 1999 and is currently undergoing trials in rice. Less than one percent of GM crops contained other traits which include providing virus resistance delaying senescence and altering the plants composition.

Adoption by farmers has been rapid between 1996 and 2013 the total surface area of land cultivated with GM crops increased by a factor of 100. Geographically though the spread has been uneven with strong growth in the Americas and parts of Asia and little in Europe and Africa. Its socioeconomic spread has been more even with approximately 54% of worldwide GM crops grown in developing countries in 2013. Although doubts have been raised most studies have found growing GM crops to be beneficial to farmers through decreased pesticide use as well as increased crop yield and farm profit.


Fruits and vegetables

Papaya was genetically modified to resist the ringspot virus (PSRV). "SunUp" is a transgenic red-fleshed Sunset papaya cultivar that is homozygous for the coat protein gene PRSV; "Rainbow" is a yellow-fleshed F1 hybrid developed by crossing 'SunUp' and nontransgenic yellow-fleshed "Kapoho". The GM cultivar was approved in 1998 and by 2010 80% of Hawaiian papaya was genetically engineered. The New York Times stated "without it the state's papaya industry would have collapsed". In China a transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya was developed by South China Agricultural University and was first approved for commercial planting in 2006; as of 2012 95% of the papaya grown in Guangdong province and 40% of the papaya grown in Hainan province was genetically modified. In Hong Kong where there is an exemption on growing and releasing any varieties of GM papaya more than 80% of grown and imported papayas were transgenic.

The New Leaf potato a GM food developed using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was made to provide in-plant protection from the yield-robbing Colorado potato beetle. The New Leaf potato brought to market by Monsanto in the late 1990s was developed for the fast food market. It was withdrawn in 2001 after retailers rejected it and food processors ran into export problems. In 2011 BASF requested the European Food Safety Authority's approval for cultivation and marketing of its Fortuna potato as feed and food. The potato was made resistant to late blight by adding resistant genes blb1 and blb2 that originate from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum. In February 2013 BASF withdrew its application. In 2014 the USDA approved a genetically modified potato developed by J. R. Simplot Company that contained ten genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried. The modifications eliminate specific proteins from the potatoes via RNA interference rather than introducing novel proteins.

As of 2005 about 13% of the Zucchini (a form of squash) grown in the US was genetically modified to resist three viruses; that strain is also grown in Canada.

In 2013 the USDA approved the import of a GM pineapple that is pink in color and that "overexpresses" a gene derived from tangerines and suppress other genes increasing production of lycopene. The plant's flowering cycle was changed to provide for more uniform growth and quality. The fruit "does not have the ability to propagate and persist in the environment once they have been harvested" according to USDA APHIS. According to Del Monte's submission the pineapples are commercially grown in a "monoculture" that prevents seed production as the plant's flowers aren't exposed to compatible pollen sources. Importation into Hawaii is banned for "plant sanitation" reasons.

In February 2015 Arctic Apples were approved by the USDA becoming the first genetically modified apple approved for sale in the US. Gene silencing is used to reduce the expression of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) thus preventing the fruit from browning.


Corn

Corn used for food and ethanol has been genetically modified to tolerate various herbicides and to express a protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that kills certain insects. About 90% of the corn grown in the US was genetically modified in 2010. In the US in 2015 81% of corn acreage contained the Bt trait and 89% of corn acreage contained the glyphosate-tolerant trait. Corn can be processed into grits meal and flour as an ingredient in pancakes muffins doughnuts breadings and batters as well as baby foods meat products cereals and some fermented products. Corn-based masa flour and masa dough are used in the production of taco shells corn chips and tortillas.


Soy

Soybeans accounted for half of all genetically modified crops planted in 2014. Genetically modified soybean has been modified to tolerate herbicides and produce healthier oils. In 2015 94% of soybean acreage in the U.S. was genetically modified to be glyphosate-tolerant.


Rice

Golden rice is the most well known GM crop that is aimed at increasing nutrient value. It has been engineered with three genes that biosynthesise beta-carotene a precursor of vitamin A in the edible parts of rice. It is intended to produce a fortified food to be grown and consumed in areas with a shortage of dietary vitamin A a deficiency which each year is estimated to kill 670 000 children under the age of 5 and cause an additional 500 000 cases of irreversible childhood blindness. The original golden rice produced 1.6μg/g of the carotenoids with further development increasing this 23 times. In 2018 it gained its first approvals for use as food.


Wheat

As of December 2017 genetically modified wheat has been evaluated in field trials but has not been released commercially.


Definition


Genetically modified foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering as opposed to traditional cross breeding. In the U.S. the Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) favor the use of the term genetic engineering over genetic modification as being more precise; the USDA defines genetic modification to include "genetic engineering or other more traditional methods".

According to the World Health Organization "Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods."

See also



Process








Creating genetically modified food is a multi-step process. The first step is to identify a useful gene from another organism that you would like to add. The gene can be taken from a cell or artificially synthesised and then combined with other genetic elements including a promoter and terminator region and a selectable marker. Then the genetic elements are inserted into the targets genome. DNA is generally inserted into animal cells using microinjection where it can be injected through the cell's nuclear envelope directly into the nucleus or through the use of viral vectors. In plants the DNA is often inserted using Agrobacterium-mediated recombination biolistics or electroporation. As only a single cell is transformed with genetic material the organism must be regenerated from that single cell. In plants this is accomplished through tissue culture. In animals it is necessary to ensure that the inserted DNA is present in the embryonic stem cells. Further testing using PCR Southern hybridization and DNA sequencing is conducted to confirm that an organism contains the new gene.

Traditionally the new genetic material was inserted randomly within the host genome. Gene targeting techniques which creates double-stranded breaks and takes advantage on the cells natural homologous recombination repair systems have been developed to target insertion to exact locations. Genome editing uses artificially engineered nucleases that create breaks at specific points. There are four families of engineered nucleases: meganucleases zinc finger nucleases transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the Cas9-guideRNA system (adapted from CRISPR). TALEN and CRISPR are the two most commonly used and each has its own advantages. TALENs have greater target specificity while CRISPR is easier to design and more efficient.


Health and safety








There is a scientific consensus that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction. Nonetheless members of the public are much less likely than scientists to perceive GM foods as safe. The legal and regulatory status of GM foods varies by country with some nations banning or restricting them and others permitting them with widely differing degrees of regulation.

Opponents claim that long-term health risks have not been adequately assessed and propose various combinations of additional testing labeling or removal from the market. The advocacy group European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility (ENSSER) disputes the claim that "science" supports the safety of current GM foods proposing that each GM food must be judged on case-by-case basis.


Testing

The legal and regulatory status of GM foods varies by country with some nations banning or restricting them and others permitting them with widely differing degrees of regulation. Countries such as the United States Canada Lebanon and Egypt use substantial equivalence to determine if further testing is required while many countries such as those in the European Union Brazil and China only authorize GMO cultivation on a case-by-case basis. In the U.S. the FDA determined that GMO's are "Generally Recognized as Safe" (GRAS) and therefore do not require additional testing if the GMO product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified product. If new substances are found further testing may be required to satisfy concerns over potential toxicity allergenicity possible gene transfer to humans or genetic outcrossing to other organisms.


Regulation








Government regulation of GMO development and release varies widely between countries. Marked differences separate GMO regulation in the U.S. and GMO regulation in the European Union. Regulation also varies depending on the intended product's use. For example a crop not intended for food use is generally not reviewed by authorities responsible for food safety.


United States regulations







In the U.S. three government organizations regulate GMOs. The FDA checks the chemical composition of organisms for potential allergens. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) supervises field testing and monitors the distribution of GM seeds. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for monitoring pesticide usage including plants modified to contain proteins toxic to insects. Like USDA EPA also oversees field testing and the distribution of crops that have had contact with pesticides to ensure environmental safety. [better source needed] In 2015 the Obama administration announced that it would update the way the government regulated GM crops.

In 1992 FDA published "Statement of Policy: Foods derived from New Plant Varieties". This statement is a clarification of FDA's interpretation of the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act with respect to foods produced from new plant varieties developed using recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) technology. FDA encouraged developers to consult with the FDA regarding any bioengineered foods in development. The FDA says developers routinely do reach out for consultations. In 1996 FDA updated consultation procedures.

The StarLink corn recalls occurred in the autumn of 2000 when over 300 food products were found to contain a genetically modified corn that had not been approved for human consumption. It was the first-ever recall of a genetically modified food.


Labeling

As of 2015 64 countries require labeling of GMO products in the marketplace.

US and Canadian national policy is to require a label only given significant composition differences or documented health impacts although some individual US states (Vermont Connecticut and Maine) enacted laws requiring them. In July 2016 Public Law 114-214 was enacted to regulate labeling of GMO food on a national basis.

In some jurisdictions the labeling requirement depends on the relative quantity of GMO in the product. A study that investigated voluntary labeling in South Africa found that 31% of products labeled as GMO-free had a GM content above 1.0%.

In the European Union all food (including processed food) or feed that contains greater than 0.9% GMOs must be labelled.


Detection







Testing on GMOs in food and feed is routinely done using molecular techniques such as PCR and bioinformatics.

In a January 2010 paper the extraction and detection of DNA along a complete industrial soybean oil processing chain was described to monitor the presence of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean: "The amplification of soybean lectin gene by end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was successfully achieved in all the steps of extraction and refining processes until the fully refined soybean oil. The amplification of RR soybean by PCR assays using event-specific primers was also achieved for all the extraction and refining steps except for the intermediate steps of refining (neutralisation washing and bleaching) possibly due to sample instability. The real-time PCR assays using specific probes confirmed all the results and proved that it is possible to detect and quantify genetically modified organisms in the fully refined soybean oil. To our knowledge this has never been reported before and represents an important accomplishment regarding the traceability of genetically modified organisms in refined oils."

According to Thomas Redick detection and prevention of cross-pollination is possible through the suggestions offered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Suggestions include educating farmers on the importance of coexistence providing farmers with tools and incentives to promote coexistence conduct research to understand and monitor gene flow provide assurance of quality and diversity in crops provide compensation for actual economic losses for farmers.


simple explanation












Genetically modified foods (GM foods) also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods) or bioengineered foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering techniques allow for the introduction of new traits as well as greater control over traits when compared to previous methods such as selective breeding and mutation breeding.

Commercial sale of genetically modified foods began in 1994 when Calgene first marketed its unsuccessful Flavr Savr delayed-ripening tomato. Most food modifications have primarily focused on cash crops in high demand by farmers such as soybean corn canola and cotton. Genetically modified crops have been engineered for resistance to pathogens and herbicides and for better nutrient profiles. GM livestock have been developed although as of 2015[update] none were on the market. As of 2015 the AquAdvantage salmon was the only animal approved for commercial production sale and consumption by the FDA. It is the first genetically modified animal to be approved for human consumption.

There is a scientific consensus that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction. Nonetheless members of the public are much less likely than scientists to perceive GM foods as safe. The legal and regulatory status of GM foods varies by country with some nations banning or restricting them and others permitting them with widely differing degrees of regulation.

However there are ongoing public concerns related to food safety regulation labelling environmental impact research methods and the fact that some GM seeds along with all new plant varieties are subject to plant breeders' rights owned by corporations.

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