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- Clasificación de trastornos mentales
- Requested articles Arts and entertainment
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- Импровизация (телешоу)
- Imperio persa
- Utenti problematici Votazioni sulla messa al bando Stefanomencarelli 2
- First Lord of the Treasury
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- Ограбление по-итальянски (фильм, 1969)
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- بركة واستراحة بوخليفة المحرق لقضاء اجازة مفعمة بالاسترخاء والاستجمام
- لوكيشن وهاتف | عيادة الدكتور حمدي السيد لطب الاطفال والعنوان بالكويت
- مطعم باب الخليج طشان
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- مطعم شفشاون للأكلات المغربية
- Стадион ЦДКА
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- من هو ... محمد مهدي ساكت العقيل البعيجي | شخصيات مؤثرة
- برجر كنج - مول 360
- لوكيشن وهاتف | شركة فيجيا للذهب والمجوهرات والعنوان بعجمان
- من هو ... سيف سالم الحارثي | شخصيات مؤثرة
- من هو ... راشد سيف الجروان الشامسي | شخصيات مؤثرة
- لوكيشن وهاتف | المدرسه الباكستانيه الخاصه والعنوان بالكويت
- مطعم بوعلي جامعة البحرين مبنى العلوم
- What does a ringworm scar look like?
- لوكيشن وهاتف | مدرسة الصابرية الأبتدائية للبنات والعنوان بالفروانية
- Академия МВД Республики Беларусь
- الكرم العربي - جبل الحسين
- مؤسس (Zillow) يدخل نادي المليارات بعد عام من عودته إلى الشركة
- Товарный дефицит в СССР
- كودو - حي الأندلس
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- Проект Дагестан Список известных дагестанцев
- اياز للالكترونيات عراد
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- Cómo abrir archivos CR2 en Photoshop
- Ice skating
- لوكيشن وهاتف | عيادة الدكتور اشرف احمد كابش لجراحة الاطفال والعنوان بالكويت
- لوكيشن وهاتف | اكو نيفانا تكنولوجيز
- Fiege (Familienname)
- Ишимбайский район
- Latin America
- Bible translations into English
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- Lamborghini Aventador
- Cómo descargar libros Kindle en un iPad
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- لوكيشن وهاتف | مطعم لو ماكرون Le Macaron Qatar
- Cynthia Barnhart
- من هو ... إبراهيم أحمد المناعي | شخصيات مؤثرة
- مطعم مندي السويفية النعيم
- لوكيشن وهاتف | شركة ريم للذهب والمجوهرات والعنوان بأبو ظبي
- فات برجر انماء مول
- Animal sexual behaviour
- Шумпетер, Йозеф
- Periferia de Tracia y Macedonia Oriental
- لوكيشن وهاتف | شركة الماسة البيضاء للمعدات الكهربائية والالكترونية والعنوان بالكويت
- من هو ... جاسم محمد بوعتابة الزعابي | شخصيات مؤثرة
- لوكيشن وهاتف | محل البغدادي لتصليح كهرباء وراديترات السيارات
- Volcan bouclier
- Hermine Stilke
- عيادة الدكتور شاكر خليل ابراهيم المطوع – عيادة لعلاج المسالك البولية والامراض التناسلية السلمانية
- من هو ... غيث هامل بن خادم الغيث القبيسي | شخصيات مؤثرة
- لوكيشن وهاتف | المبدع للاستشارات الادارية
- من هو ... بدر بن سالم السالم التميمي | شخصيات مؤثرة
- سعر هاتف Honor 8X ومواصفاته بالكويت
- East Riding of Yorkshire
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- Elsner von Gronow (Adelsgeschlecht)
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- Florin Constantinescu
- لوكيشن وهاتف | بريستول للمقاولات Bristol Trading & Contracting
- Heilig-Geist-Spital (Dinkelsbühl)
- بافوس بيتزا - نخلة جميرا
- Dome of the Rock
- Exploring the Secrets of Acupuncture
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- لوكيشن وهاتف | شركة النبغاء للعقارات و العنوان بالشارقة
- How to Fix a Split Toenail
- Libya, Libya, Libya
- بول - سيتي سنتر معيصم دبي
- من هو ... أسامة فتحي رباح الشريف | شخصيات مؤثرة
- Fiege (Familienname)
- Index of Sri Lankaâ€“related articles (N)
مساعد العارضي يوجه سؤالا إلى وزير التعليم العالي
العارضي يوجه سؤالين إلى وزيري التعليم العالي والتجارة
العارضي يوجه 6 أسئلة إلى 5 وزراء
مهلهل المضف يوجه 10 أسئلة إلى 6 وزراء
مهلهل المضف يوجه 16 سؤالاً إلى 10 وزراء
سعود صاهود دولان عامر المطيري
مهلهل المضف يوجه 6 أسئلة إلى 6 وزراء
أسامة زيد عبدالحسين حسن الزيد
مهلهل المضف يوجه 10 أسئلة إلى وزراء التعليم العالي والتربية و(شؤون الاتصالات)
مهند الساير يوجه سؤالاً إلى وزير الشؤون الاجتماعية
مهند الساير يوجه 6 أسئلة إلى 5 وزراء
مهند الساير يوجه سؤالاً إلى وزير التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي
هشام الصالح يوجه سؤالا إلى وزير الداخلية
هشام الصالح يسأل وزير التعليم العالي عن تطبيق نظام تقييم أداء عمداء الكليات
الفضالة يسأل وزير الدولة لشؤون مجلس الوزراء عن المواصفات الفنية للمناقصات
الفضالة يسأل وزير الكهرباء عن آلية مراجعة المناقصات في وزارته
عضوية النائب د. بدر حامد الملا في اللجان لدور الانعقاد الأول من الفصل التشريعي ال16
الاقتراح برغبة مقدم من النائب
القطان يقترح منحا لمتفوقي البعثات الداخلية في التخصصات الأكاديمية كافة
عضوية النائب فارس سعد العتيبي في اللجان لدور الانعقاد الأول من الفصل التشريعي ال 16
عضوية النائب مبارك عبد الله العجمي في اللجان لدور الانعقاد الأول من الفصل التشريعي ال 16
طلب عدم التعاون مع المحمد 2009
الغانم يستقبل سفير الإمارات لدى الكويت
عضوية النائب مرزوق خليفة الخليفة في اللجان لدور الانعقاد الأول من الفصل التشريعي ال 16
عضوية النائب ناصر سعد الدوسري في اللجان لدور الانعقاد الأول من الفصل التشريعي ال 16
عضوية النائب د.هشام عبد الصمد الصالح في اللجان لدور الانعقاد الأول من الفصل التشريعي ال 16
انتخاب النائب فرز الديحاني لمنصب أمين سر مجلس الأمة وتزكية أسامة الشاهين لمنصب المراقب
الغانم ممثلا للبرلمانات العربية يتوجه إلى جنيف للاجتماع إلى رئيس الاتحاد البرلماني الدولي
الغانم يعزي نظيريه المكسيكيين بضحايا انهيار جسر القطار المعلق
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 18 في دستور الكويت .... إذا خلا محل أحد أعضاء
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 29 في دستور الكويت .... في حالة خلو مكان رئيس
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 39 في دستور الكويت .... يختص مكتب المجلس بالأمور الآتية:
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 40 في دستور الكويت .... يختص أمين السر بالإشراف على
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 45 في دستور الكويت .... ينتخب المجلس أعضاء اللجان بالأغلبية
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 60 في دستور الكويت .... عند بدء كل دور تستأنف
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 100 في دستور الكويت .... إذا تعددت مشروعات أو مقترحات
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 102 في دستور الكويت .... تبدأ مناقشة مشروعات القوانين بتلاوة
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 105 في دستور الكويت .... تخطر اللجنة المتخصصة في جميع
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 110 في دستور الكويت .... يكون أخذ الآراء على المشروع
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 126 في دستور الكويت .... يجوز للحكومة من تلقاء نفسها
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 131 في دستور الكويت .... الأسئلة التي توجه إلى رئيس
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 141 في دستور الكويت .... إذا تنازل المستجوب عن استجوابه
عبدالله فهيد حمد الهاشمي العجمي
هزاع دويحان عامر اللبيدان
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 149 في دستور الكويت .... في حالة تقديم الطلبات المنوه
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 162 في دستور الكويت .... يكون نظر الميزانية في المجلس
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 171 في دستور الكويت .... يلحق بمجلس الأمة ديوان المراقبة
الدولة ونظام الحكم| مادة 12 في دستور الكويت .... تصون الدولة التراث الإسلامي والعربي،
الدولة ونظام الحكم| مادة 24 في دستور الكويت .... العدالة الاجتماعية أساس الضرائب والتكاليف
الدولة ونظام الحكم| مادة 182 في دستور الكويت .... ينشر هذا الدستور في الجريدة
الدولة ونظام الحكم| مادة 183 في دستور الكويت .... يستمر العمل بالقانون رقم 1
السيرة الذاتية للنائب أحمد عبدالله مطيع العازمي
السيرة الذاتية للنائب احمد محمد الحمد
السيرة الذاتية للنائب أسامة عيسى الشاهين
السيرة الذاتية للنائب الصيفي مبارك الصيفي العجمي
السيرة الذاتية للنائب ثامر سعد السويط الظفيري
السيرة الذاتية للنائب حمد أحمد روح الدين
السيرة الذاتية للنائب حمد سيف الهرشاني
السيرة الذاتية للنائب حمد محمد المطر
السيرة الذاتية للنائب حمدان سالم العازمي
السيرة الذاتية للنائب حمود مبرك العازمي
السيرة الذاتية للنائب خليل ابراهيم الصالح
السيرة الذاتية للنائب سلمان خالد الحليلة العازمي
السيرة الذاتية للنائب صالح ذياب المطيري
السيرة الذاتية للنائب عيسى أحمد الكندري
السيرة الذاتية للنائب فايز غنام الجمهور المطيري
السيرة الذاتية للنائب فرز محمد الديحاني
السيرة الذاتية للنائب مبارك عبدالله العجمي
السيرة الذاتية للنائب محمد عبيد الراجحي
السيرة الذاتية للنائب محمد هادي الحويلة
السيرة الذاتية للنائب مرزوق خليفة الخليفة
السيرة الذاتية للنائب مهند طلال الساير
السيرة الذاتية للنائب ناصر سعد الدوسري
أحمد علي الجسار
السيرة الذاتية للنائب هشام عبد الصمد الصالح
محمد يوسف النصف
عبدالمحسن طاهر موسى الصايغ
السيرة الذاتية للنائب مهلهل خالد المضف
فهد حجاب جريوي خرصان الحيان
عايض علوش الخميشى العازمي
خالد سالم عبدالله عدوه العجمي
أحمد عبدالعزيز جاسم السعدون
مبارك الحجرف يوجه سؤالاً إلى وزير الأوقاف والشؤون الإسلامية
محمد شنيفي مطلق حمد الماجدي
حمد روح الدين يوجه 4 أسئلة إلى وزراء العدل والتعليم العالي والصحة والمالية
نتائج إنتخابات مجلس الأمة 2012 (الأغلبية المبطل ) في جميع الدوائر | كاملة
بدر الحميدي يوجه سؤالين إلى وزيري المالية و (شؤون الاتصالات)
السيرة الذاتية للنائب مبارك هيف الحجرف
أنور عبدالصمد إسماعيل علي
تقليص الدوائر 2004
محمد حمود زامل الفجي
دغيشم محمد الدغيشم
رؤساء المجلس الوزراء
صالح علي سفر راشد بوسمره المطيري
بكر بادي صالح فريج الرشيدى
عبدالله سليمان العريفان
عبدالعزيز إبراهيم الفليج
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز قراءة القرآن من الهاتف وقت الحيض
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز لعن الشيطان ؟
- سؤال و جواب | ألم الرقبة ؟ و سببه ؟
- سؤال و جواب | ما المقصود بقول نبينا محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم (كفران العشير)؟
- ماهي طريقة استعمال دواء إندرال واثاره الجانبية | ادوية نفسية | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | من هو الشهيد ؟
- سؤال و جواب | اريد توضيح معنى حديث إذا سبق ماء الرجل ماء المرأة
- سؤال و جواب | مدى صحة حديث " من يبارك الناس في هذا الشهر الفضيل، يحرم عليه النار
- سؤال و جواب | ماهى علامات انقطاع الحيض ؟
- هل الكلب او القط الذي لونه اسود يعتبر جنا او شيطان ؟ | الجن والشياطين | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | كبرت فى السن و من الممكن أن لا أتزوج فهل يجوز لى ممارة العادة السرية ؟
- سؤال و جواب | ماهو علاج جرثومة المعدة ؟
- سؤال و جواب | زوجى مسافر فهل يجوز لى ممارسة العادة السرية ؟
- سؤال و جواب | لم أغتسل من الجنابة إلا بعد طلوع الفجر فما حكم صيامي؟
- سؤال و جواب |هل يجوز أن استعين بالأبراج فى معرفة طبيعة الناس ؟
- سؤال و جواب | الآية التى فيها " وما ملكت أيمانكم " ماالمقصود بهذه الكلمات ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز الحب في الإسلام
- هل يري الانسان الجن رؤية العين ام يري الجن علي هيئة خيالات ؟ | الجن والشياطين | عالم كيف
- اشتكي من ألم في الأذن وصداع في الرقبة والرأس من الخلف ؟ | امراض الرأس والاذن | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | حكم من رش أركان المنزل بالملح لطرد الشياطين جهلا
- سؤال و جواب | أثر خروج المنى على الصيام ؟
- سؤال و جواب | كيف أتطهر المذي ؟
- ماهي انواع الطهارة وطرقها ؟ | الطهارة | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | معنى حديث " أن ما أصابك لم يكن ليخطئك" ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل عقار اندرال 0 له أضرار على من يستعمله ؟
- شرح حديث لاتقوم الساعة حتي تكلم السباع الانس | احاديث نبوية | عالم كيف
- الوساوس والاكتئاب تطاردني وتاثرت دراستي كثيرا بسبب هذه الوساوس | الحالات النفسية | عالم كيف
- اعاني من عدم قدرتي علي الاندماج مع الناس وقله الثقه في نفسي فماذا افعل ؟ | تطوير الذات | عالم كيف
- ارغب في معرفة معلومات عن عالم الجن وسبب تلبسهم بالانس وتكليفاتهم | الجن والشياطين | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | هل لسورة الواقعة فضائل ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز جماع الزوجتين فى غرفة واحدة وبرضاهما ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل هناك دعاء لتهنئة المولود؟ وماهو ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل يوجد فى الاسلام ما يحث على القبلة على الفم بين الزوجين ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل للعشق علاج ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز مداعبة الزوجة فى الدبر باستعمال الواقى الذكرى؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز بلع البلغم أثناء الصيام
- سؤال و جواب |ما حكم ىصلاة الجمعة إذا اجتمع العيد و الجمعة فى يوم واحد ؟
- سؤال و جواب | العادة السرية هل هي جائزة شرعاً
- سؤال و جواب | حكم دعاء القنوت ؟
- ماهو حكم لبس الرجل قميص احمر فاقع وهل يوجد في السنة ما يمنع ذلك ؟ | لباس الرجل | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب |الفرق بين الغيبة و النميمة ؟
- لدى حبة تحت الابط فهل من الممكن ان تكون سرطان ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل لسورة الملك فضائل معينة ؟
- سؤال و جواب | ما هذا الدم النزى ينزل بعد الاجهاض ؟
- كيف اقرأ و اختم القرآن هل بالترتيب ام من خلال سور متفرقه؟ | القرآن الكريم | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | هل لصيام التسع الأول من ذى الحجة فضل ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل هناك تفسير لهذه الأسماء " ريماس وريتاج وريتال ورسيل
- سؤال و جواب | ماهو فضل ذكر " لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له
- ينزل منى دم بعد انتهاء الدورة الشهرية بفترة فما هو ؟
- سؤال و جواب | ماهى الصفة الصحيحة للصلاة على نبينا محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم
- ماهي اعراض الحسد وعلاماته ؟ | الحسد والعين | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | كيف أتوب و أرجع إلى طريق الله ؟
- سؤال و جواب | بعد المداعبة يخرج سائل من المرأة فهل يجب الغسل منه؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز مداعبة المرأة لنفسها أثناء الجماع ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل توجد علامات لمعرفة مني المرآة ؟
- معني كلمة كشخه ومدلولها من اللغة العربية |ادب ولغة | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | فضل " لا حولا ولا قوة الا بالله وفضل نصف رجب ؟
- سؤال و جواب | ما جزاء من يشاهد الأفلام الاباحية ؟
- سؤال و جواب | جامعنى زوجى بعد انقطاع دم الحيض و قبل الغسل ؟
- رأيت زوجتي تخونني و في وضع حميمي بالحلم مع أحد الأشخاص الذين أعرفهم أو من المقربين لنا |تفسير الرؤى والأحلام | قناة عالم كيف
- وقت المفعول العلاجي والاثار الجانبية لعقار سبرالكس | ادوية نفسية | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | من هم الذين تكلموا في المهد؟
- سؤال و جواب | عندما أفكر فى الشهوة و بعدها ينزل مني سائل فما حكمه ؟
- الفرق بين الحدث الاكبر والحدث الاصغر وكيفيه الغسل | الطهارة | عالم كيف
- هل يمكن للفتاة العذراء ان تحمل بدون تمزق غشاء البكارة ؟ | استشارات طبية | عالم كيف
- هل استعمال اوراق السدر يفك السحر | علاج السحر | عالم كيف
- ارغب في معرفة اثار استخدام عقار الباروكستين لعلاج الاكتئاب والاثار الجانبية | ادوية الاكتئاب | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | هل لسور الواقعة و بس و الرحمن و الدخان ؟
- كيف يعالج مريض الفصام مشاكله في الحفظ
- سؤال و جواب | كيف أقوم بالعقيقة على الوجه الصحيح
- ما سبب ظهور حبة بجانب فتحة الشرج؟ | امراض الجهاز التناسلي والبولي | قناة عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | كانت تمارس العادة السيئة ( الاستمناء) ثم تصلى بدون اغتسال فما حكم صلاتها؟
- عدم العدل بين الزوجتين خاصة فى حقوق الفراش | المشكلات الزوجيه | عالم كيف
- وانا ابحث عن عمل ولم اجد الي الان ولدي شعور باليأس | استشارات ايمانية | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | ماهى الصلوات السرية وما هى الصلوات الجهرية ؟
- سؤال و جواب |هل يجوز استعمال ورق السدر لحل السحر؟
- اثر دعاء أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللهِ التَّامَّةِ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ | الادعية والاذكار | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | الحضانة بعد الطلاق من حق من ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز أن ألح في الدعاء لأتزوج من شخص ؟
- سؤال و جواب | مقبلة على الزواج و هناك افرازات كثيرة كيف أتخلص منها ؟
- ارغب في التوقف عن استخدام عقار نوديب فما هي الاثار الجانبية المترتبة علي ذلك ؟ | تاثير الادوية | عالم كيف
- انهت الدورة منذ 13 يوم ونزل دم الآن فما سببه ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز لى أن يطأنى زوجى فى الدبر مع الحاحه ؟ ؟
- انا فتاة اتحدث مع شاب عبر الانترنت فهل هذا حرام ؟ مخاطر الاختلاط | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز حلق اللحية ؟
- أعاني من زيادة ضربات القلب عند مواجهة الآخرين | الرهاب
- هل يحب الشيطان اللون الاحمر ؟ | الجن والشياطين | عالم كيف
- صلاتي لاتنهاني عن الفحشاء والمنكر والعادة السرية تنقص من عزيمتي | الالتزام والاستقامة | عالم كيف
- حكم العادة السرية..لم لا يملك تكلفة الزواج ويريد العفاف ..؟ | استشارة وإجابة | قناة عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز الاستمتاع بظاهر دبر الزوجة عند فتحة الشرج ؟
- وجدت بعد العمش في عيني بعد الصلاة فهل علي الاعادة | الطهارة والوضوء | عالم كيف
- كيف أتصرف مع زوجي وأطلب منه حقي الشرعي ؟ | الاستشارات الطبية والنفسية | قناة عالم كيف
- الاعراض الجانبية وتاثير تناول حبوب ديان ؟ مشاكل المهبل | عالم كيف
- ما هو الكريم المفضل للتخلص من تصبغات الوجه
- امر بحالة فزع اثناء النوم فما هي الاسباب وماهو العلاج | الصحة البدنية | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | ماهى الطريقة الصحيحة لأداء ركعتى الشفع والوتر
- ما أراه في منامي يحدث في الواقع.. فما تفسيركم لذلك؟ | تفسير الرؤي والاحلام | قناة عالم كيف
- هل للحبة السوداء"حبة البركة "فوائد ؟
- هل يمكن للفتاة معرفة عذريتها بنفسها ؟ | غشاء البكارة | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | هل للعادة السيئة تأثير على الصلاة و الصيام
History of Greece
From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
Modern Greek nation state (1821–present)
In the early months of 1821 the Greeks declared their independence but did not achieve it until 1829. The Great Powers first shared the same view concerning the necessity of preserving the status quo of the Ottoman Empire but soon changed their stance. Scores of non-Greeks philhellenes volunteered to fight for the cause including Lord Byron.
On October 20 1827 a combined British French and Russian naval force destroyed the Ottoman and Egyptian armada. The Russian minister of foreign affairs Ioannis Kapodistrias himself a Greek returned home as President of the new Republic and with his diplomatic handling managed to secure the Greek independence and the military dominination in Central Greece. The first capital of the independent Greece was temporarily Aigina (1828–1829) and later officially Nafplion (1828–1834). After his assassination the European powers turned Greece into a monarchy; the first King Otto came from Bavaria and the second George I from Denmark. In 1834 King Otto transferred the capital to Athens.
During the 19th and early 20th centuries Greece sought to enlarge its boundaries to include the ethnic Greek population of the Ottoman Empire. Greece played a peripheral role in the Crimean War. When Russia attacked the Ottoman Empire in 1853 Greek leaders saw an opportunity to expand North and South into Ottoman areas that had a Christian majority. However Greece did not coordinate its plans with Russia did not declare war and received no outside military or financial support. The French and British seized its major port and effectively neutralized the Greek army. Greek efforts to cause insurrections failed as they were easily crushed by Ottoman forces. Greece was not invited to the peace conference and made no gains out of the war. The frustrated Greek leadership blamed the King for failing to take advantage of the situation; his popularity plunged and he was later forced to abdicate. The Ionian Islands were given by Britain upon the arrival of the new King George I in 1863 and Thessaly was ceded by the Ottomans in 1880.
In the late 19th century modernization transformed the social structure of Greece. The population grew rapidly putting heavy pressure on the system of small farms with low productivity. Overall population density more than doubled from 41 persons per square mile in 1829 to 114 in 1912 (16 to 44 per km2). One response was emigration to the United States with a quarter million people leaving between 1906 and 1914. Entrepreneurs found numerous business opportunities in the retail and restaurant sectors of American cities; some sent money back to their families others returned with hundreds of dollars enough to purchase a farm or a small business in the old village. The urban population tripled from 8% in 1853 to 24% in 1907. Athens grew from a village of 6000 people in 1834 when it became the capital to 63 000 in 1879 111 000 in 1896 and 167 000 in 1907.
In Athens and other cities men arriving from rural areas set up workshops and stores creating a middle class. They joined with bankers professional men university students and military officers to demand reform and modernization of the political and economic system. Athens became the center of the merchant marine which quadrupled from 250 000 tons in 1875 to more than 1 000 000 tons in 1915. As the cities modernized businessmen adopted the latest styles of Western European architecture.
The participation of Greece in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 is one of the most important episodes in modern Greek history as it allowed the Greek state to almost double its size and achieve most of its present territorial size. As a result of the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 most of Epirus Macedonia Crete and the northern Aegean islands were incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece.
World War I and Greco-Turkish War
The outbreak of World War I in 1914 produced a split in Greek politics with King Constantine I an admirer of Germany calling for neutrality while Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos pushed for Greece to join the Allies. The conflict between the monarchists and the Venizelists sometimes resulted in open warfare and became known as the National Schism. In 1917 the Allies forced Constantine to abdicate in favor of his son Alexander and Venizelos returned as premier. At the end of the war the Great Powers agreed that the Ottoman city of Smyrna (Izmir) and its hinterland both of which had large Greek populations be handed over to Greece.
Greek troops occupied Smyrna in 1919 and in 1920 the Treaty of Sèvres was signed by the Ottoman government; the treaty stipulated that in five years time a plebiscite would be held in Smyrna on whether the region would join Greece. However Turkish nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk overthrew the Ottoman government and organised a military campaign against the Greek troops resulting in the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922). A major Greek offensive ground to a halt in 1921 and by 1922 Greek troops were in retreat. The Turkish forces recaptured Smyrna on 9 September 1922 and setting the city ablaze and killing many Greeks and Armenians.
The war was concluded by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) according to which there was to be a population exchange between Greece and Turkey on the basis of religion. Over one million Orthodox Christians left Turkey in exchange for 400 000 Muslims from Greece. The events of 1919–1922 are regarded in Greece as a particularly calamitous period of history. Between 1914 and 1923 an estimated 750 000 to 900 000 Greeks died at the hands of the Ottoman Turks in what many scholars have termed a genocide.
Interwar to World War II
The Second Hellenic Republic was proclaimed in 1924 only to be disestablished in 1935 with the return of King George II of Greece. In August 1936 Prime Minister Metaxas with the agreement of the king suspended the parliament and established the quasi-fascist Metaxas regime.
Despite the country's numerically small and ill-equipped armed forces Greece made a decisive contribution to the Allied efforts in World War II. At the start of the war Greece sided with the Allies and refused to give in to Italian demands. Italy invaded Greece by way of Albania on 28 October 1940 but Greek troops repelled the invaders after a bitter struggle (see Greco-Italian War). This marked the first Allied victory in the war.
Primarily to secure his strategic southern flank German dictator Adolf Hitler reluctantly stepped in and launched the Battle of Greece in April 1941. Axis units from Germany Bulgaria and Italy successfully invaded Greece through Yugoslavia forcing out the Greek defenders. The Greek government eventually decided to stop the fighting and thus stopped sending ammunition and supplies to the northern front and the defenders were easily overrun. The Greek government then proceeded as the Nazi forces came towards the capital of Athens to leave for Crete and then Cairo Egypt.
On 20 May 1941 the Germans attempted to seize Crete with a large attack by paratroopers with the aim of reducing the threat of a counter-offensive by Allied forces in Egypt but faced heavy resistance. The Greek campaign might have delayed German military plans against Soviet Union and it is argued that had the German invasion of the Soviet Union started on 20 May 1941 instead of 22 June 1941 the Nazi assault against the Soviet Union might have succeeded. The heavy losses of German paratroopers led the Germans to launch no further large-scale air-invasions.
During the Axis occupation of Greece thousands of Greeks died in direct combat in concentration camps or of starvation. The occupiers murdered the greater part of the Jewish community despite efforts by Christian Greeks to shelter the Jews. The economy of Greece was devastated.
When the Soviet Army began its drive across Romania in August 1944 the German Army in Greece began withdrawing north and northwestward from Greece into Yugoslavia and Albania to avoid being cut off in Greece. Hence the German occupation of Greece ended in October 1944. The Resistance group ELAS seized control of Athens on 12 October 1944. British troops had already landed on 4 October in Patras and entered Athens on 14 October 1944.
Christina Goulter summarizes the devastation done to Greece during the war:
"Between 1941 in 1945 over 8% of the Greek population had died; some 2000 villages and small towns had been razed to the ground; starvation was widespread due to the destruction of crops and worsened in many parts of Greece after liberation when agricultural labourers migrated to urban centres to escape politically inspired violence in the countryside; trade either internally or externally had all but ceased; most of Greece’s merchant marine lay at the bottom of the sea; and motorized transport had been confiscated by the axis occupiers."
Greek Civil War (1944–1949)
The Greek Civil War (Greek: Eμφύλιος πόλεμος romanized: Emfílios pólemos) was the first major confrontation of the Cold War. It was fought between 1944 and 1949 in Greece between the nationalist/non-Marxist forces of Greece (financially supported by Great Britain at first and later by the United States ) and the Democratic Army of Greece (ELAS) which was the military branch of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE).
The conflict resulted in a victory for the British — and later U.S.-supported government forces which led to Greece receiving American funds through the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan as well as becoming a member of NATO which helped to define the ideological balance of power in the Aegean for the entire Cold War.
The first phase of the civil war occurred in 1943–1944. Marxist and non-Marxist resistance groups fought each other in a fratricidal conflict to establish the leadership of the Greek resistance movement. In the second phase (December 1944) the ascendant communists in military control of most of Greece confronted the returning Greek government in exile which had been formed under the auspices of the Western Allies in Cairo and originally included six KKE-affiliated ministers. In the third phase (called by some the "Third Round") guerrilla forces controlled by the KKE fought against the internationally recognized Greek government which was formed after elections were boycotted by the KKE. Although the involvement of the KKE in the uprisings was universally known the party remained legal until 1948 continuing to coordinate attacks from its Athens offices until proscription.
The war which lasted from 1946 to 1949 was characterised by guerilla warfare between the KKE forces and Greek governmental forces mainly in the mountain ranges of northern Greece. The war ended with the NATO bombing of Mount Grammos and the final defeat of the KKE forces. The civil war left Greece with a legacy of political polarization. As a result Greece also entered into an alliance with the United States and joined NATO while relationships with its communist northern neighbours both pro-Soviet and neutral became strained.
Postwar development and integration in Western Bloc (1949–1967)
In the 1950s and 1960s Greece developed rapidly initially with the help of the Marshall Plan's grants and loans also to decrease the communist influence. In 1952 by joining NATO Greece clearly became part of the Western Bloc of the Cold War. But in Greek society the deep divide between the leftist and rightist sections continued.
Greece economy advanced further through growth in the tourism sector. New attention was given to women's rights and in 1952 suffrage for women was guaranteed in the Constitution full Constitutional equality following and Lina Tsaldari becoming the first female minister that decade.
The Greek economic miracle is the period of sustained economic growth generally from 1950 to 1973. During this period the Greek economy grew by an average of 7.7% second in the world only to Japan.
Military dictatorship (1967–1974)
In 1967 the Greek military seized power in a coup d'état overthrowing the centre right government of Panagiotis Kanellopoulos. It established the Greek military junta of 1967-1974 which became known as the Régime of the Colonels. The junta government's accession to power lead to an isolation to Greece from European affairs and froze Greece's entry to the European Union. In 1973 the régime abolished the Greek monarchy and in 1974 dictator Papadopoulos denied help to the United States. After a second coup that year Colonel Ioannides was appointed as the new head-of-state.
Ioannides was responsible for the 1974 coup against President Makarios of Cyprus. The coup became the pretext for the first wave of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 (see Greco-Turkish relations). The Cyprus events and the outcry following a bloody suppression of Athens Polytechnic uprising in Athens led to the implosion of the military régime.
Third Hellenic Republic (1974–present)
After the end of the military régime democracy was restored.
The fall of the junta was followed by the metapolitefsi. Metapolitefsi was initiated when Konstantinos Karamanlis returned from self-exile in Paris at the invitation of the junta to become interim prime minister on July 23 1974. and later gained re-election for two further terms at the head of the conservative New Democracy Party. In August 1974 Greek forces withdrew from the integrated military structure of NATO in protest at the Turkish occupation of northern Cyprus.
In 1974 a referendum voted 69%–31% to confirm the deposition of King Constantine II. A democratic republican constitution came into force. Another previously exiled politician Andreas Papandreou also returned and founded the socialist PASOK Party (Panhellenic Socialist Movement) which won the 1981 election and dominated Greek politics for almost two decades.
After the restoration of democracy Greece's stability and economic prosperity improved significantly. Greece rejoined NATO in 1980 joined the European Union (EU) in 1981 and adopted the euro as its currency in 2001. New infrastructure funds from the EU and growing revenues from tourism shipping services light industry and the telecommunications industry have brought Greeks an unprecedented standard of living. Tensions continue to exist between Greece and Turkey over Cyprus and the delimitation of borders in the Aegean Sea but relations have considerably thawed following successive earthquakes first in Turkey and then in Greece and an outpouring of sympathy and generous assistance by ordinary Greeks and Turks (see Earthquake Diplomacy).
Greece in the Eurozone
Main article: Greek government-debt crisis
The 2008 global economic recession impacted Greece as well as the rest of the countries in the eurozone. From late 2009 fears developed in investment markets of a sovereign debt crisis concerning Greece's ability to pay its debts in view of the large increase in the country's government debt. This crisis of confidence was indicated by a widening of bond yield spreads and risk insurance on credit default swaps compared to other countries most importantly Germany. Downgrading of Greek government debt to junk bond status created alarm in financial markets. On 2 May 2010 the Eurozone countries and the International Monetary Fund agreed on a €110 billion loan for Greece conditional on the implementation of harsh austerity measures.
In October 2011 Eurozone leaders also agreed on a proposal to write off 50% of Greek debt owed to private creditors increasing the European Financial Stability Facility amount to about €1 trillion and requiring European banks to achieve 9% capitalization to reduce the risk of contagion to other countries. These austerity measures were extremely unpopular with the Greek public precipitating demonstrations and civil unrest.
Venetian and Ottoman rule (15th century–AD 1821)
The Greeks held out in the Peloponnese until 1460 and the Venetians and Genoese clung to some of the islands but by the early 16th century all of mainland Greece and most of the Aegean islands were in Ottoman hands excluding several port cities still held by the Venetians (Nafplio Monemvasia Parga and Methone the most important of them). The Cyclades islands in the middle of the Aegean were officially annexed by the Ottomans in 1579 although they were under vassal status since the 1530s. Cyprus fell in 1571 and the Venetians retained Crete until 1669. The Ionian Islands were never ruled by the Ottomans with the exception of Kefalonia (from 1479 to 1481 and from 1485 to 1500) and remained under the rule of the Republic of Venice. It was in the Ionian Islands where modern Greek statehood was born with the creation of the Republic of the Seven Islands in 1800.
Ottoman Greece was a multiethnic society. However the modern Western notion of multiculturalism although at first glance appears to correspond to the system of millets is considered to be incompatible with the Ottoman system. The Greeks with the one hand were given some privileges and freedom; with the other they were exposed to a tyranny deriving from the malpractices of its administrative personnel over which the central government had only remote and incomplete control. When the Ottomans arrived two Greek migrations occurred. The first migration entailed the Greek intelligentsia migrating to Western Europe and influencing the advent of the Renaissance. The second migration entailed Greeks leaving the plains of the Greek peninsula and resettling in the mountains. The millet system contributed to the ethnic cohesion of Orthodox Greeks by segregating the various peoples within the Ottoman Empire based on religion. The Greeks living in the plains during Ottoman rule were either Christians who dealt with the burdens of foreign rule or crypto-Christians (Greek Muslims who were secret practitioners of the Greek Orthodox faith). Some Greeks became crypto-Christians to avoid heavy taxes and at the same time express their identity by maintaining their ties to the Greek Orthodox Church. However Greeks who converted to Islam and were not crypto-Christians were deemed "Turks" (Muslims) in the eyes of Orthodox Greeks even if they didn't adopt the Turkish language.
The Ottomans ruled most of Greece until the early 19th century. The first self-governed since the Middle Ages Hellenic state was established during the French Revolutionary Wars in 1800 21 years before the outbreak of the Greek revolution in mainland Greece. It was the Septinsular Republic with Corfu as capital.
Byzantine rule (324–AD 1204)
The division of the empire into East and West and the subsequent collapse of the Western Roman Empire were developments that constantly accentuated the position of the Greeks in the empire and eventually allowed them to become identified with it altogether. The leading role of Constantinople began when Constantine the Great turned Byzantium into the new capital of the Roman Empire from then on to be known as Constantinople placing the city at the center of Hellenism a beacon for the Greeks that lasted to the modern era.
The figures of Constantine the Great and Justinian dominated during 324–610. Assimilating the Roman tradition the emperors sought to offer the basis for later developments and for the formation of the Byzantine Empire. Efforts to secure the borders of the Empire and to restore the Roman territories marked the early centuries. At the same time the definitive formation and establishment of the Orthodox doctrine but also a series of conflicts resulting from heresies that developed within the boundaries of the empire marked the early period of Byzantine history.
In the first period of the middle Byzantine era (610–867) the empire was attacked both by old enemies (Persians Lombards Avars and Slavs) as well as by new ones appearing for the first time in history (Arabs Bulgars). The main characteristic of this period was that the enemy attacks were not localized to the border areas of the state but they were extended deep beyond even threatening the capital itself.
The attacks of the Slavs lost their periodical and temporary character and became permanent settlements that transformed into new states initially hostile to Constantinople until their christianization. Those states were referred to by the Byzantines as Sclavinias.
Changes were also observed in the internal structure of the empire which was dictated by both external and internal conditions. The predominance of the small free farmers the expansion of the military estates and the development of the system of themes brought to completion developments that had started in the previous period. Changes were noted also in the sector of administration: the administration and society had become immiscibly Greek while the restoration of Orthodoxy after the iconoclast movement allowed the successful resumption of missionary action among neighboring peoples and their placement within the sphere of Byzantine cultural influence. During this period the state was geographically reduced and economically damaged since it lost wealth-producing regions; however it obtained greater lingual dogmatic and cultural homogeneity.
From the late 8th century the Empire began to recover from the devastating impact of successive invasions and the reconquest of the Greek peninsula began. Greeks from Sicily and Asia Minor were brought in as settlers. The Slavs were either driven out to Asia Minor or assimilated and the Sclavinias were eliminated. By the middle of the 9th century Greece was Byzantine again and the cities began to recover due to improved security and the restoration of effective central control.
When the Byzantine Empire was rescued from a period of crisis by the resolute leadership of the three Komnenoi emperors Alexios John and Manuel in the 12th century Greece prospered. Recent research has revealed that this period was a time of significant growth in the rural economy with rising population levels and extensive tracts of new agricultural land being brought into production. The widespread construction of new rural churches is a strong indication that prosperity was being generated even in remote areas.
A steady increase in population led to a higher population density and there is good evidence that the demographic increase was accompanied by the revival of towns. According to Alan Harvey's Economic Expansion in the Byzantine Empire 900–1200 towns expanded significantly in the twelfth century. Archaeological evidence shows an increase in the size of urban settlements together with a ‘notable upsurge’ in new towns. Archaeological evidence tells us that many of the medieval towns including Athens Thessaloniki Thebes and Corinth experienced a period of rapid and sustained growth starting in the 11th century and continuing until the end of the 12th century.
The growth of the towns attracted the Venetians and this interest in trade appears to have further increased economic prosperity in Greece. Certainly the Venetians and others were active traders in the ports of the Holy Land and they made a living out of shipping goods between the Crusader Kingdoms of Outremer and the West while also trading extensively with Byzantium and Egypt.
A kind of "Renaissance" of the Byzantine art began in the 10th century. Many of the most important Byzantine churches in and around Athens for example were built during these two centuries and this reflects the growth of urbanization in Greece during this period. There was also a revival in mosaic art with artists showing great interest in depicting natural landscapes with wild animals and scenes from the hunt. Mosaics became more realistic and vivid with an increased emphasis on depicting three-dimensional forms. With its love of luxury and passion for color the art of this age delighted in the production of masterpieces that spread the fame of Byzantium throughout the Christian world.
Beautiful silks from the workshops of Constantinople also portrayed in dazzling color animals—lions elephants eagles and griffins—confronting each other or representing Emperors gorgeously arrayed on horseback or engaged in the chase. The eyes of many patrons were attracted and the economy of Greece grew. In the provinces regional schools of architecture began producing many distinctive styles that drew on a range of cultural influences. All this suggests that there was an increased demand for art with more people having access to the necessary wealth to commission and pay for such work.
Yet the marvelous expansion of Byzantine art during this period one of the most remarkable facts in the history of the empire did not stop there. From the 10th to the 12th century Byzantium was the main source of inspiration for the West. By their style arrangement and iconography the mosaics of St. Mark's at Venice and of the cathedral at Torcello clearly show their Byzantine origin. Similarly those of the Palatine Chapel the Martorana at Palermo and the cathedral of Cefalu together with the vast decoration of the cathedral at Monreale prove the influence of Byzantium on the Norman Court of Sicily in the 12th century.
Hispano-Moorish art was unquestionably derived from the Byzantine. Romanesque art owes much to the East from which it borrowed not only its decorative forms but the plan of some of its buildings as is proved for instance by the domed churches of south-western France. Princes of Kiev Venetian doges abbots of Monte Cassino merchants of Amalfi and the Norman kings of Sicily all looked to Byzantium for artists or works of art. Such was the influence of Byzantine art in the 12th century that Russia Venice southern Italy and Sicily all virtually became provincial centers dedicated to its production.
The Fourth Crusade (1204)
The year 1204 marks the beginning of the Late Byzantine period when Constantinople and a number of Byzantine territories were conquered by the Latins during the Fourth Crusade. During this period a number of Byzantine Greek successor states emerged such as the Empire of Nicaea the Despotate of Epirus and the Empire of Trebizond such as a number of Frankish/Latin Catholic states (Principality of Achaea Duchy of Athens Duchy of the Archipelago Kingdom of Thessalonica etc.) In Latin-occupied territories elements of feudality entered medieval Greek life.
From partial Byzantine restoration to 1453
The Latin Empire however lasted only 57 years when in 1261 Constantinople was reclaimed by the Byzantine Greeks and the Byzantine Empire was restored. However in mainland Greece and islands various Latin possessions continued to exist. From 1261 onwards Byzantium underwent a gradual weakening of its internal structures and the reduction of its territories from Ottoman invasions culminating in the Fall of Constantinople on May 29 1453. The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople resulted in the official end of both the Eastern Roman Empire and the Byzantine period of Greek history.
Mesolithic Greece (13000 - 7000 BC)
The Mesolithic period in Greece started after Upper Paleolithic and it is part of Middle Stone Age in Greece before Neolithic emerging. Mesolithic sites in Greece were limited and the majority are located near the coast. Franchthi cave and Theopetra are among the most important Mesolithic sites in Greece and South Eastern Europe
Neolithic to Bronze Age (7000–1100 BC)
The Neolithic Revolution reached Europe beginning in 7000–6500 BC when agriculturalists from the Near East entered the Greek peninsula from Anatolia by island-hopping through the Aegean Sea. The earliest Neolithic sites with developed agricultural economies in Europe dated 8500–9000 BPE are found in Greece. The first Greek-speaking tribes speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language arrived in the Greek mainland sometime in the Neolithic period or the Early Bronze Age (c. 3200 BC).
Cycladic and Minoan civilization
The Cycladic culture is a significant Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age culture is best known for its schematic flat female idols carved out of the islands' pure white marble centuries before the great Middle Bronze Age ("Minoan") culture arose in Crete to the south. The Minoan civilization in Crete lasted from about c. 3000 BC (Early Minoan) to c. 1400 BC and the Helladic culture on the Greek mainland from c. 3200 – c. 3100 to c. 2000 – c. 1900.
Little specific information is known about the Minoans (even the name Minoans is a modern appellation derived from Minos the legendary king of Crete) including their written system which was recorded on the undeciphered Linear A script and Cretan hieroglyphs. They were primarily a mercantile people engaged in extensive overseas trade throughout the Mediterranean region.
Minoan civilization was affected by a number of natural cataclysms such as the volcanic eruption at Thera (c. 1628–1627 BC) and earthquakes (c. 1600 BC). In 1425 BC the Minoan palaces (except Knossos) were devastated by fire which allowed the Mycenaean Greeks influenced by the Minoans' culture to expand into Crete. The Minoan civilization which preceded the Mycenaean civilization on Crete was revealed to the modern world by Sir Arthur Evans in 1900 when he purchased and then began excavating a site at Knossos.
Pre Mycenean Helladic period
Following the end of the Neolithic ages the last Stone Age period the early and middle Helladic period was established in the Greek mainland. Firstly the slow transition from the Final Neolithic period took place with the Eutresis culture. The agricultural communities of that period needed entire centuries in order to replace their stone tools with metal tools. Following the materialistic developments more powerful micro-states and the base of the future Late Helladic Mycenaean civilization were developed. The Early Bronze Age settlements saw further development during Helladic III or Tiryns culture and the Middle Helladic period before the Mycenean period.
Main article: Mycenaean Greece
Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and Middle Helladic periods in mainland Greece. It emerged in c. 1600 BC when Helladic culture in mainland Greece was transformed under influences from Minoan Crete and lasted until the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces in c. 1100 BC. Mycenaean Greece is the Late Helladic Bronze Age civilization of Ancient Greece and it is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and most of Greek mythology and religion. The Mycenaean period takes its name from the archaeological site Mycenae in the northeastern Argolid in the Peloponnesos of southern Greece. Athens Pylos Thebes and Tiryns are also important Mycenaean sites.
Mycenaean civilization was dominated by a warrior aristocracy. Around 1400 BC the Mycenaeans extended their control to Crete the center of the Minoan civilization and adopted a form of the Minoan script called Linear A to write their early form of Greek. The Mycenaean-era script is called Linear B which was deciphered in 1952 by Michael Ventris. The Mycenaeans buried their nobles in beehive tombs (tholoi) large circular burial chambers with a high-vaulted roof and straight entry passage lined with stone. They often buried daggers or some other form of military equipment with the deceased. The nobility was often buried with gold masks tiaras armor and jeweled weapons. Mycenaeans were buried in a sitting position and some of the nobility underwent mummification.
Around 1100–1050 BC the Mycenaean civilization collapsed. Numerous cities were sacked and the region entered what historians see as a "dark age". During this period Greece experienced a decline in population and literacy. The Greeks themselves have traditionally blamed this decline on an invasion by another wave of Greek people the Dorians although there is scant archaeological evidence for this view.
Roman Greece (146 BC– AD 324)
Militarily Greece itself declined to the point that the Romans conquered the land (168 BC onwards) though Greek culture would in turn conquer Roman life. Although the period of Roman rule in Greece is conventionally dated as starting from the sacking of Corinth by the Roman Lucius Mummius in 146 BC Macedonia had already come under Roman control with the defeat of its king Perseus by the Roman Aemilius Paullus at Pydna in 168 BC.
The Romans divided the region into four smaller republics and in 146 BC Macedonia officially became a province with its capital at Thessalonica. The rest of the Greek city-states gradually and eventually paid homage to Rome ending their de jure autonomy as well. The Romans left local administration to the Greeks without making any attempt to abolish traditional political patterns. The agora in Athens continued to be the center of civic and political life.
Caracalla's decree in AD 212 the Constitutio Antoniniana extended citizenship outside Italy to all free adult men in the entire Roman Empire effectively raising provincial populations to equal status with the city of Rome itself. The importance of this decree is historical not political. It set the basis for integration where the economic and judicial mechanisms of the state could be applied throughout the Mediterranean as was once done from Latium into all Italy. In practice of course integration did not take place uniformly. Societies already integrated with Rome such as Greece were favored by this decree in comparison with those far away too poor or just too alien such as Britain Palestine or Egypt.
Caracalla's decree did not set in motion the processes that led to the transfer of power from Italy and the West to Greece and the East but rather accelerated them setting the foundations for the millennium-long rise of Greece in the form of the Eastern Roman Empire as a major power in Europe and the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages.
Ancient Greece (1100–146 BC)
Main article: Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece refers to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Dark Ages to the end of antiquity (c. AD 600). In common usage it refers to all Greek history before the Roman Empire but historians use the term more precisely. Some writers include the periods of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations while others argue that these civilizations were so different from later Greek cultures that they should be classed separately. Traditionally the Ancient Greek period was taken to begin with the date of the first Olympic Games in 776 BC but most historians now extend the term back to about 1000 BC.
The traditional date for the end of the Classical Greek period is the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. The period that follows is classed as Hellenistic. Not everyone treats the Classical Greek and Hellenic periods as distinct; however and some writers treat the Ancient Greek civilization as a continuum running until the advent of Christianity in the 3rd century AD.
Ancient Greece is considered by most historians to be the foundational culture of Western civilization. Greek culture was a powerful influence in the Roman Empire which carried a version of it to many parts of Europe. Ancient Greek civilization has been immensely influential on the language politics educational systems philosophy art and architecture of the modern world particularly during the Renaissance in Western Europe and again during various neo-classical revivals in 18th and 19th-century Europe and the Americas.
Iron Age (1100–800 BC)
Main article: Greek Dark Ages
Further information: Protogeometric art
The Greek Dark Ages (c. 1100 – c. 800 BC) refers to the period of Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean civilization in the 11th century BC to the rise of the first Greek city-states in the 9th century BC and the epics of Homer and earliest writings in the Greek alphabet in the 8th century BC.
The collapse of the Mycenaean civilization coincided with the fall of several other large empires in the near east most notably the Hittite and the Egyptian. The cause may be attributed to an invasion of the Sea People wielding iron weapons. When the Dorians came down into Greece they also were equipped with superior iron weapons easily dispersing the already weakened Mycenaeans. The period that follows these events is collectively known as the Greek Dark Ages.
Kings ruled throughout this period until eventually they were replaced with an aristocracy then still later in some areas an aristocracy within an aristocracy—an elite of the elite. Warfare shifted from a focus on the cavalry to a great emphasis on infantry. Due to its cheapness of production and local availability iron replaced bronze as the metal of choice in the manufacturing of tools and weapons. Slowly equality grew among the different sects of people leading to the dethronement of the various Kings and the rise of the family.
At the end of this period of stagnation the Greek civilization was engulfed in a renaissance that spread the Greek world as far as the Black Sea and Spain. The writing was relearned from the Phoenicians eventually spreading north into Italy and the Gauls.
Main article: Archaic Greece
In the 8th century BC Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. From about the 9th century BC written records begin to appear. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities a pattern largely dictated by Greek geography where every island valley and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges.
The Archaic period can be understood as the Orientalizing period when Greece was at the fringe but not under the sway of the budding Neo-Assyrian Empire. Greece adopted significant amounts of cultural elements from the Orient in art as well as in religion and mythology. Archaeologically Archaic Greece is marked by Geometric pottery.
Main article: Classical Greece
Further information: Classical Athens
The basic unit of politics in Ancient Greece was the polis sometimes translated as city-state. "Politics" literally means "the things of the polis" where each city-state was independent at least in theory. Some city-states might be subordinate to others (a colony traditionally deferred to its mother city) some might have had governments wholly dependent upon others (the Thirty Tyrants in Athens was imposed by Sparta following the Peloponnesian War) but the titularly supreme power in each city was located within that city. This meant that when Greece went to war (e.g. against the Persian Empire) it took the form of an alliance going to war. It also gave ample opportunity for wars within Greece between different cities.
Two major wars shaped the Classical Greek world. The Persian Wars (499–449 BC) are recounted in Herodotus's Histories. By the late 6th century BC the Achaemenid Persian Empire ruled over all Greek city-states in Ionia (the western coast of modern-day Turkey) and had made territorial gains in the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper as well. The Greek cities of Ionia led by Miletus revolted against the Persian Empire and were supported by some mainland cities including Athens and Eretria. After the uprising had been quelled Darius I launched the First Persian invasion of Greece to exact revenge on the Athenians. In 492 BC Persian general Mardonius led an army (supported by a fleet) across the Hellespont re-subjugating Thrace and adding Macedonia as a fully-subjugated client kingdom. However before he could reach Greece proper his fleet was destroyed in a storm near Mount Athos. In 490 BC Darius sent another fleet directly across the Aegean (rather than following the land route as Mardonius had done) to subdue Athens. After destroying the city of Eretria the fleet landed and faced the Athenian army at Marathon which ended in a decisive Athenian victory. Darius's successor Xerxes I launched the Second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC. Despite Greek defeat at Thermopylae after which the Persians briefly overran northern and central Greece the Greek city-states once again managed to comprehensively defeat the invaders with naval victory at Salamis and victory on land at Plataea.
To prosecute the war and then to defend Greece from further Persian attack Athens founded the Delian League in 477 BC. Initially each city in the League would contribute ships and soldiers to a common army but in time Athens allowed (and then compelled) the smaller cities to contribute funds so that it could supply their quota of ships. Secession from the League could be punished. Following military reversals against the Persians the treasury was moved from Delos to Athens further strengthening the latter's control over the League. The Delian League was eventually referred to pejoratively as the Athenian Empire.
In 458 BC while the Persian Wars were still ongoing war broke out between the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League comprising Sparta and its allies. After some inconclusive fighting the two sides signed a peace in 447 BC. That peace was stipulated to last thirty years: instead it held only until 431 BC with the onset of the Peloponnesian War. Our main sources concerning this war are Thucydides's History of the Peloponnesian War and Xenophon's Hellenica.
The war began over a dispute between Corcyra and Epidamnus. Corinth intervened on the Epidamnian side. Fearful lest Corinth captures the Corcyran navy (second only to the Athenian in size) Athens intervened. It prevented Corinth from landing on Corcyra at the Battle of Sybota laid siege to Potidaea and forbade all commerce with Corinth's closely situated ally Megara (the Megarian decree).
There was disagreement among the Greeks as to which party violated the treaty between the Delian and Peloponnesian Leagues as Athens was technically defending a new ally. The Corinthians turned to Sparta for aid. Fearing the growing might of Athens and witnessing Athens' willingness to use it against the Megarians (the embargo would have ruined them) Sparta declared the treaty to have been violated and the Peloponnesian War began in earnest.
The first stage of the war (known as the Archidamian War for the Spartan king Archidamus II) lasted until 421 BC with the signing of the Peace of Nicias. The Athenian general Pericles recommended that his city fight a defensive war avoiding battle against the superior land forces led by Sparta and importing everything needful by maintaining its powerful navy. Athens would simply outlast Sparta whose citizens feared to be out of their city for long lest the helots revolt.
This strategy required that Athens endure regular sieges and in 430 BC it was visited with an awful plague that killed about a quarter of its people including Pericles. With Pericles gone less conservative elements gained power in the city and Athens went on the offensive. It captured 300–400 Spartan hoplites at the Battle of Pylos. This represented a significant fraction of the Spartan fighting force which the latter decided it could not afford to lose. Meanwhile Athens had suffered humiliating defeats at Delium and Amphipolis. The Peace of Nicias concluded with Sparta recovering its hostages and Athens recovering the city of Amphipolis.
Those who signed the Peace of Nicias in 421 BC swore to uphold it for fifty years. The second stage of the Peloponnesian War began in 415 BC when Athens embarked on the Sicilian Expedition to support an ally (Segesta) attacked by Syracuse and to conquer Sicily. Initially Sparta was reluctant but Alcibiades the Athenian general who had argued for the Sicilian Expedition defected to the Spartan cause upon being accused of grossly impious acts and convinced them that they could not allow Athens to subjugate Syracuse. The campaign ended in disaster for the Athenians.
Athens' Ionian possessions rebelled with the support of Sparta as advised by Alcibiades. In 411 BC an oligarchical revolt in Athens held out the chance for peace but the Athenian navy which remained committed to the democracy refused to accept the change and continued fighting in Athens' name. The navy recalled Alcibiades (who had been forced to abandon the Spartan cause after reputedly seducing the wife of Agis II a Spartan king) and made him its head. The oligarchy in Athens collapsed and Alcibiades reconquered what had been lost.
In 407 BC Alcibiades was replaced following a minor naval defeat at the Battle of Notium. The Spartan general Lysander having fortified his city's naval power won victory after victory. Following the Battle of Arginusae which Athens won but was prevented by bad weather from rescuing some of its sailors Athens executed or exiled eight of its top naval commanders. Lysander followed with a crushing blow at the Battle of Aegospotami in 405 BC which almost destroyed the Athenian fleet. Athens surrendered one year later ending the Peloponnesian War.
The war had left devastation in its wake. Discontent with the Spartan hegemony that followed (including the fact that it ceded Ionia and Cyprus to the Persian Empire at the conclusion of the Corinthian War (395–387 BC); see Treaty of Antalcidas) induced the Thebans to attack. Their general Epaminondas crushed Sparta at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC inaugurating a period of Theban dominance in Greece. In 346 BC unable to prevail in its ten-year war with Phocis Thebes called upon Philip II of Macedon for aid. Macedon quickly forced the city-states into being united by the League of Corinth which led to the conquering of the Persian Empire and the Hellenistic Age had begun.
The Hellenistic period of Greek history begins with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and ends with the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture which remained essentially unchanged until the advent of Christianity it did mark the end of Greek political independence.
During the Hellenistic period the importance of "Greece proper" (that is the territory of modern Greece) within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply. The great centres of Hellenistic culture were Alexandria and Antioch capitals of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Syria. (See Hellenistic civilization for the history of Greek culture outside Greece in this period.)
Athens and her allies revolted against Macedon upon hearing that Alexander had died but were defeated within a year in the Lamian War. Meanwhile a struggle for power broke out among Alexander's generals which resulted in the break-up of his empire and the establishment of a number of new kingdoms (see the Wars of the Diadochi). Ptolemy was left with Egypt Seleucus with the Levant Mesopotamia and points east. Control of Greece Thrace and Anatolia was contested but by 298 BC the Antigonid dynasty had supplanted the Antipatrid.
Macedonian control of the city-states was intermittent with a number of revolts. Athens Rhodes Pergamum and other Greek states retained substantial independence and joined the Aetolian League as a means of defending it and restoring democracy in their states whereas they saw Macedon as a tyrannical kingdom because of the fact they had not adopted democracy. The Achaean League while nominally subject to the Ptolemies was in effect independent and controlled most of southern Greece. Sparta also remained independent but generally refused to join any league.
In 267 BC Ptolemy II persuaded the Greek cities to revolt against Macedon in what became the Chremonidean War after the Athenian leader Chremonides. The cities were defeated and Athens lost her independence and her democratic institutions. This marked the end of Athens as a political actor although it remained the largest wealthiest and most cultivated city in Greece. In 225 BC Macedon defeated the Egyptian fleet at Cos and brought the Aegean islands except Rhodes under its rule as well.
Sparta remained hostile to the Achaeans and in 227 BC invaded Achaea and seized control of the League. The remaining Achaeans preferred distant Macedon to nearby Sparta and allied with the former. In 222 BC the Macedonian army defeated the Spartans and annexed their city—the first time Sparta had ever been occupied by a different state.
Philip V of Macedon was the last Greek ruler with both the talent and the opportunity to unite Greece and preserve its independence against the ever-increasing power of Rome. Under his auspices the Peace of Naupactus (217 BC) brought conflict between Macedon and the Greek leagues to an end and at this time he controlled all of Greece except Athens Rhodes and Pergamum.
In 215 BC however Philip formed an alliance with Rome's enemy Carthage. Rome promptly lured the Achaean cities away from their nominal loyalty to Philip and formed alliances with Rhodes and Pergamum now the strongest power in Asia Minor. The First Macedonian War broke out in 212 BC and ended inconclusively in 205 BC but Macedon was now marked as an enemy of Rome.
In 202 BC Rome defeated Carthage and was free to turn her attention eastwards. In 198 BC the Second Macedonian War broke out because Rome saw Macedon as a potential ally of the Seleucid Empire the greatest power in the east. Philip's allies in Greece deserted him and in 197 BC he was decisively defeated at the Battle of Cynoscephalae by the Roman proconsul Titus Quinctius Flaminius.
Luckily for the Greeks Flaminius was a moderate man and an admirer of Greek culture. Philip had to surrender his fleet and become a Roman ally but was otherwise spared. At the Isthmian Games in 196 BC Flaminius declared all the Greek cities free although Roman garrisons were placed at Corinth and Chalcis. But the freedom promised by Rome was an illusion. All the cities except Rhodes were enrolled in a new League which Rome ultimately controlled and aristocratic constitutions were favored and actively promoted.
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