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اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 105 في دستور الكويت .... تخطر اللجنة المتخصصة في جميع
اللائحة الداخليه لمجلس الامة | مادة 110 في دستور الكويت .... يكون أخذ الآراء على المشروع
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- سؤال و جواب | كيف أتوب و أرجع إلى طريق الله ؟
- سؤال و جواب | بعد المداعبة يخرج سائل من المرأة فهل يجب الغسل منه؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز مداعبة المرأة لنفسها أثناء الجماع ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل توجد علامات لمعرفة مني المرآة ؟
- معني كلمة كشخه ومدلولها من اللغة العربية |ادب ولغة | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | فضل " لا حولا ولا قوة الا بالله وفضل نصف رجب ؟
- سؤال و جواب | ما جزاء من يشاهد الأفلام الاباحية ؟
- سؤال و جواب | جامعنى زوجى بعد انقطاع دم الحيض و قبل الغسل ؟
- رأيت زوجتي تخونني و في وضع حميمي بالحلم مع أحد الأشخاص الذين أعرفهم أو من المقربين لنا |تفسير الرؤى والأحلام | قناة عالم كيف
- وقت المفعول العلاجي والاثار الجانبية لعقار سبرالكس | ادوية نفسية | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | من هم الذين تكلموا في المهد؟
- سؤال و جواب | عندما أفكر فى الشهوة و بعدها ينزل مني سائل فما حكمه ؟
- الفرق بين الحدث الاكبر والحدث الاصغر وكيفيه الغسل | الطهارة | عالم كيف
- هل يمكن للفتاة العذراء ان تحمل بدون تمزق غشاء البكارة ؟ | استشارات طبية | عالم كيف
- هل استعمال اوراق السدر يفك السحر | علاج السحر | عالم كيف
- ارغب في معرفة اثار استخدام عقار الباروكستين لعلاج الاكتئاب والاثار الجانبية | ادوية الاكتئاب | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | هل لسور الواقعة و بس و الرحمن و الدخان ؟
- كيف يعالج مريض الفصام مشاكله في الحفظ
- سؤال و جواب | كيف أقوم بالعقيقة على الوجه الصحيح
- ما سبب ظهور حبة بجانب فتحة الشرج؟ | امراض الجهاز التناسلي والبولي | قناة عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | كانت تمارس العادة السيئة ( الاستمناء) ثم تصلى بدون اغتسال فما حكم صلاتها؟
- عدم العدل بين الزوجتين خاصة فى حقوق الفراش | المشكلات الزوجيه | عالم كيف
- وانا ابحث عن عمل ولم اجد الي الان ولدي شعور باليأس | استشارات ايمانية | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | ماهى الصلوات السرية وما هى الصلوات الجهرية ؟
- سؤال و جواب |هل يجوز استعمال ورق السدر لحل السحر؟
- اثر دعاء أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللهِ التَّامَّةِ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ | الادعية والاذكار | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | الحضانة بعد الطلاق من حق من ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز أن ألح في الدعاء لأتزوج من شخص ؟
- سؤال و جواب | مقبلة على الزواج و هناك افرازات كثيرة كيف أتخلص منها ؟
- ارغب في التوقف عن استخدام عقار نوديب فما هي الاثار الجانبية المترتبة علي ذلك ؟ | تاثير الادوية | عالم كيف
- انهت الدورة منذ 13 يوم ونزل دم الآن فما سببه ؟
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز لى أن يطأنى زوجى فى الدبر مع الحاحه ؟ ؟
- انا فتاة اتحدث مع شاب عبر الانترنت فهل هذا حرام ؟ مخاطر الاختلاط | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز حلق اللحية ؟
- أعاني من زيادة ضربات القلب عند مواجهة الآخرين | الرهاب
- هل يحب الشيطان اللون الاحمر ؟ | الجن والشياطين | عالم كيف
- صلاتي لاتنهاني عن الفحشاء والمنكر والعادة السرية تنقص من عزيمتي | الالتزام والاستقامة | عالم كيف
- حكم العادة السرية..لم لا يملك تكلفة الزواج ويريد العفاف ..؟ | استشارة وإجابة | قناة عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | هل يجوز الاستمتاع بظاهر دبر الزوجة عند فتحة الشرج ؟
- وجدت بعد العمش في عيني بعد الصلاة فهل علي الاعادة | الطهارة والوضوء | عالم كيف
- كيف أتصرف مع زوجي وأطلب منه حقي الشرعي ؟ | الاستشارات الطبية والنفسية | قناة عالم كيف
- الاعراض الجانبية وتاثير تناول حبوب ديان ؟ مشاكل المهبل | عالم كيف
- ما هو الكريم المفضل للتخلص من تصبغات الوجه
- امر بحالة فزع اثناء النوم فما هي الاسباب وماهو العلاج | الصحة البدنية | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | ماهى الطريقة الصحيحة لأداء ركعتى الشفع والوتر
- ما أراه في منامي يحدث في الواقع.. فما تفسيركم لذلك؟ | تفسير الرؤي والاحلام | قناة عالم كيف
- هل للحبة السوداء"حبة البركة "فوائد ؟
- هل يمكن للفتاة معرفة عذريتها بنفسها ؟ | غشاء البكارة | عالم كيف
- سؤال و جواب | هل للعادة السيئة تأثير على الصلاة و الصيام
From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
Main article: Administrative divisions of the Yuan dynasty
See also: Yuan dynasty in Inner Asia
The territory of the Yuan dynasty was divided into the Central Region (腹裏) governed by the Central Secretariat and places under control of various provinces (行省) or Branch Secretariats (行中書省) as well as the region under the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs.
The Central Region consisting of present-day Hebei Shandong Shanxi the south-eastern part of present-day Inner Mongolia and the Henan areas to the north of the Yellow River was considered the most important region of the dynasty and directly governed by the Central Secretariat (or Zhongshu Sheng) at Khanbaliq (modern Beijing); similarly another top-level administrative department called the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs (or Xuanzheng Yuan) held administrative rule over the whole of modern-day Tibet and a part of Sichuan Qinghai and Kashmir.
Branch Secretariats or simply provinces were provincial-level administrative organizations or institutions though they were not exactly provinces in modern sense. There were 11 "regular" provinces in Yuan dynasty and their administrations were subordinated to the Central Secretariat.
Below the level of provinces the largest political division was the circuit (道) followed by lù (路) fǔ (府) and zhōu (州). These are three kinds of prefecture-like divisions. The lowest political division was the county (縣).
Basically lù is higher than fǔ and fǔ is higher than zhōu. However the actual relationship between them could be very complicated. Both lù fǔ and zhōu could administer counties. Some fǔ and zhōu are directly administered by the province while some exist inside a lù. A lù usually administers several counties along with several fǔ and zhōu and the fǔ or zhōu themselves could also administer their own counties. As a result it is impossible to exactly define how many tiers of divisions there are under a province.
This government structure at the provincial level was later inherited and modified by the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Science and technology
Main article: Science and technology of the Yuan dynasty
Further information: Chinese mathematics
Advances in polynomial algebra were made by mathematicians during the Yuan era. The mathematician Zhu Shijie (1249–1314) solved simultaneous equations with up to four unknowns using a rectangular array of coefficients equivalent to modern matrices. Zhu used a method of elimination to reduce the simultaneous equations to a single equation with only one unknown. His method is described in the Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns written in 1303. The opening pages contain a diagram of Pascal's triangle. The summation of a finite arithmetic series is also covered in the book.
Guo Shoujing applied mathematics to the construction of calendars. He was one of the first mathematicians in China to work on spherical trigonometry. Gou derived a cubic interpolation formula for his astronomical calculations. His calendar the Shoushi Li (《授時暦》; Time Granting Calendar) was disseminated in 1281 as the official calendar of the Yuan dynasty. The calendar may have been influenced solely by the work of Song dynasty astronomer Shen Kuo or possibly by the work of Arab astronomers. There are no explicit signs of Muslim influences in the Shoushi calendar but Mongol rulers were known to be interested in Muslim calendars. Mathematical knowledge from the Middle East was introduced to China under the Mongols and Muslim astronomers brought Arabic numerals to China in the 13th century.
The physicians of the Yuan court came from diverse cultures. Healers were divided into non-Mongol physicians called otachi and traditional Mongol shamans. The Mongols characterized otachi doctors by their use of herbal remedies which was distinguished from the spiritual cures of Mongol shamanism. Physicians received official support from the Yuan government and were given special legal privileges. Kublai created the Imperial Academy of Medicine to manage medical treatises and the education of new doctors. Confucian scholars were attracted to the medical profession because it ensured a high income and medical ethics were compatible with Confucian virtues.
The Chinese medical tradition of the Yuan had "Four Great Schools" that the Yuan inherited from the Jin dynasty. All four schools were based on the same intellectual foundation but advocated different theoretical approaches toward medicine. Under the Mongols the practice of Chinese medicine spread to other parts of the empire. Chinese physicians were brought along military campaigns by the Mongols as they expanded towards the west. Chinese medical techniques such as acupuncture moxibustion pulse diagnosis and various herbal drugs and elixirs were transmitted westward to the Middle East and the rest of the empire. Several medical advances were made in the Yuan period. The physician Wei Yilin (1277–1347) invented a suspension method for reducing dislocated joints which he performed using anesthetics. The Mongol physician Hu Sihui described the importance of a healthy diet in a 1330 medical treatise.
Western medicine was also practiced in China by the Nestorian Christians of the Yuan court where it was sometimes labeled as huihui or Muslim medicine. The Nestorian physician Jesus the Interpreter founded the Office of Western Medicine in 1263 during the reign of Kublai. Huihui doctors staffed at two imperial hospitals were responsible for treating the imperial family and members of the court. Chinese physicians opposed Western medicine because its humoral system contradicted the yin-yang and wuxing philosophy underlying traditional Chinese medicine. No Chinese translation of Western medical works is known but it is possible that the Chinese had access to Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine.
Printing and publishing
The Mongol rulers patronized the Yuan printing industry. Chinese printing technology was transferred to the Mongols through Kingdom of Qocho and Tibetan intermediaries. Some Yuan documents such as Wang Zhen's Nong Shu were printed with earthenware movable type a technology invented in the 12th century. However most published works were still produced through traditional block printing techniques. The publication of a Taoist text inscribed with the name of Töregene Khatun Ögedei's wife is one of the first printed works sponsored by the Mongols. In 1273 the Mongols created the Imperial Library Directorate a government-sponsored printing office. The Yuan government established centers for printing throughout China. Local schools and government agencies were funded to support the publishing of books.
Private printing businesses also flourished under the Yuan. They published a diverse range of works and printed educational literary medical religious and historical texts. The volume of printed materials was vast. In 1312 1 000 copies of a Buddhist text commented by Cosgi Odsir were printed just within Beijing. By 1328 annual sales of printed calendars and almanacs reached over three million in the Yuan dynasty.
One of the more notable applications of printing technology was the Jiaochao the paper money of the Yuan. Jiaochao were made from the bark of mulberry trees. The Yuan government used woodblocks to print paper money but switched to bronze plates in 1275. The Mongols experimented with establishing the Chinese-style paper monetary system in Mongol-controlled territories outside of China. The Yuan minister Bolad was sent to Iran where he explained Yuan paper money to the Il-khanate court of Gaykhatu. The Il-khanate government issued paper money in 1294 but public distrust of the exotic new currency doomed the experiment.
Foreign observers took note of Yuan printing technology. Marco Polo documented the Yuan printing of paper money and almanac pamphlets called tacuini. The vizier Rashid-al-Din recognized that printing was a valuable technological breakthrough and expressed regret that the Mongol experiment with printing paper money had failed in the Muslim world. Rashid-al-Din's view was not shared by other chroniclers in the Middle East who were critical of the experiment's disruptive impact on the Il-khanate.
In Chinese ceramics the period was one of expansion with the great innovation the development in Jingdezhen ware of underglaze painted blue and white pottery. This seems to have begun in the early decades of the 14th century and by the end of the dynasty was mature and well-established. Other major types of wares continued without a sharp break in their development but there was a general trend to some larger size pieces and more decoration. This is often seen as a decline from Song refinement. Exports expanded considerably especially to the Islamic world.
Main article: History of the Yuan dynasty
Further information: Timeline of the Yuan dynasty
Genghis Khan united the Mongol tribes of the steppes and became Great Khan in 1206. He and his successors expanded the Mongol empire across Asia. Under the reign of Genghis' third son Ögedei Khan the Mongols destroyed the weakened Jin dynasty in 1234 conquering most of northern China. Ögedei offered his nephew Kublai a position in Xingzhou Hebei. Kublai was unable to read Chinese but had several Han teachers attached to him since his early years by his mother Sorghaghtani. He sought the counsel of Chinese Buddhist and Confucian advisers. Möngke Khan succeeded Ögedei's son Güyük as Great Khan in 1251. He granted his brother Kublai control over Mongol held territories in China. Kublai built schools for Confucian scholars issued paper money revived Chinese rituals and endorsed policies that stimulated agricultural and commercial growth. He adopted as his capital city Kaiping in Inner Mongolia later renamed Shangdu.
Many Han Chinese and Khitan defected to the Mongols to fight against the Jin. Two Han Chinese leaders Shi Tianze Liu Heima (劉黑馬 aka Liu Ni) and the Khitan Xiao Zhala (蕭札剌) defected and commanded the 3 Tumens in the Mongol army. Liu Heima and Shi Tianze served Ogödei Khan. Liu Heima and Shi Tianxiang led armies against Western Xia for the Mongols. There were 4 Han Tumens and 3 Khitan Tumens with each Tumen consisting of 10 000 troops. The three Khitan Generals Shimobeidier (石抹孛迭兒) Tabuyir (塔不已兒) and Zhongxi the son of Xiaozhaci (蕭札刺之子重喜) commanded the three Khitan Tumens and the four Han Generals Zhang Rou Yan Shi Shi Tianze and Liu Heima commanded the four Han tumens under Ogödei Khan.
Möngke Khan commenced a military campaign against the Chinese Song dynasty in southern China. The Mongol force that invaded southern China was far greater than the force they sent to invade the Middle East in 1256. He died in 1259 without a successor. Kublai returned from fighting the Song in 1260 when he learned that his brother Ariq Böke was challenging his claim to the throne. Kublai convened a kurultai in Kaiping that elected him Great Khan. A rival kurultai in Mongolia proclaimed Ariq Böke Great Khan beginning a civil war. Kublai depended on the cooperation of his Chinese subjects to ensure that his army received ample resources. He bolstered his popularity among his subjects by modeling his government on the bureaucracy of traditional Chinese dynasties and adopting the Chinese era name of Zhongtong. Ariq Böke was hampered by inadequate supplies and surrendered in 1264. All of the three western khanates (Golden Horde Chagatai Khanate and Ilkhanate) became functionally autonomous and only the Ilkhans truly recognized Kublai as Great Khan. Civil strife had permanently divided the Mongol Empire.
Rule of Kublai Khan
Instability troubled the early years of Kublai Khan's reign. Ögedei's grandson Kaidu refused to submit to Kublai and threatened the western frontier of Kublai's domain. The hostile but weakened Song dynasty remained an obstacle in the south. Kublai secured the northeast border in 1259 by installing the hostage prince Wonjong as the ruler of the Kingdom of Goryeo (Korea) making it a Mongol tributary state. Kublai was also threatened by domestic unrest. Li Tan the son-in-law of a powerful official instigated a revolt against Mongol rule in 1262. After successfully suppressing the revolt Kublai curbed the influence of the Han advisers in his court. He feared that his dependence on Chinese officials left him vulnerable to future revolts and defections to the Song.
Kublai's government after 1262 was a compromise between preserving Mongol interests in China and satisfying the demands of his Chinese subjects. He instituted the reforms proposed by his Chinese advisers by centralizing the bureaucracy expanding the circulation of paper money and maintaining the traditional monopolies on salt and iron. He restored the Imperial Secretariat and left the local administrative structure of past Chinese dynasties unchanged. However Kublai rejected plans to revive the Confucian imperial examinations and divided Yuan society into three later four classes with the Han occupying the lowest rank. Kublai's Chinese advisers still wielded significant power in the government but their official rank was nebulous.
Founding the dynasty
Kublai readied the move of the Mongol capital from Karakorum in Mongolia to Khanbaliq in 1264 constructing a new city near the former Jurchen capital Zhongdu now modern Beijing in 1266. In 1271 Kublai formally claimed the Mandate of Heaven and declared that 1272 was the first year of the Great Yuan (大元) in the style of a traditional Chinese dynasty. The name of the dynasty originated from the I Ching and describes the "origin of the universe" or a "primal force". Kublai proclaimed Khanbaliq the Daidu (大都; Dàdū; 'Great Capital') of the dynasty. The era name was changed to Zhiyuan to herald a new era of Chinese history. The adoption of a dynastic name legitimized Mongol rule by integrating the government into the narrative of traditional Chinese political succession. Khublai evoked his public image as a sage emperor by following the rituals of Confucian propriety and ancestor veneration while simultaneously retaining his roots as a leader from the steppes.
Kublai Khan promoted commercial scientific and cultural growth. He supported the merchants of the Silk Road trade network by protecting the Mongol postal system constructing infrastructure providing loans that financed trade caravans and encouraging the circulation of paper banknotes (鈔; Jiaochao). During the beginning of the Yuan dynasty the Mongols continued issuing coins; however under Külüg Khan coins were completely replaced by paper money. It wasn't until the reign of Toghon Temür that the government of the Yuan dynasty would attempt to reintroduce copper coinage for circulation. The Pax Mongolica Mongol peace enabled the spread of technologies commodities and culture between China and the West. Kublai expanded the Grand Canal from southern China to Daidu in the north. Mongol rule was cosmopolitan under Kublai Khan. He welcomed foreign visitors to his court such as the Venetian merchant Marco Polo who wrote the most influential European account of Yuan China. Marco Polo's travels would later inspire many others like Christopher Columbus to chart a passage to the Far East in search of its legendary wealth.
Military conquests and campaigns
After strengthening his government in northern China Kublai pursued an expansionist policy in line with the tradition of Mongol and Chinese imperialism. He renewed a massive drive against the Song dynasty to the south. Kublai besieged Xiangyang between 1268 and 1273 the last obstacle in his way to capture the rich Yangzi River basin. An unsuccessful naval expedition was undertaken against Japan in 1274. The Duan family ruling the Kingdom of Dali in Yunnan submitted to the Yuan dynasty as vassals and were allowed to keep their throne militarily assisting the Yuan dynasty against the Song dynasty in southern China. The Duan family still ruled Dali relatively independently during the Yuan dynasty. The Tusi chieftains and local tribe leaders and kingdoms in Yunnan Guizhou and Sichuan submitted to Yuan rule and were allowed to keep their titles. The Han Chinese Yang family ruling the Chiefdom of Bozhou which was recognized by the Song dynasty and Tang dynasty also received recognition by the Mongols in the Yuan dynasty and later by the Ming dynasty. The Luo clan in Shuixi led by Ahua were recognized by the Yuan emperors as they were by the Song emperors when led by Pugui and Tang emperors when led by Apei. They descended from the Shu Han era king Huoji who helped Zhuge Liang against Meng Huo. They were also recognized by the Ming dynasty.
Kublai captured the Song capital of Hangzhou in 1276 the wealthiest city of China after the surrender of the Southern Song Han Chinese Emperor Gong of Song. Emperor Gong of Song (personal name Zhao Xian) was married off to a Mongol princess of the royal Borjigin family of the Yuan dynasty. Song loyalists escaped from the capital and enthroned a young child as Emperor Bing of Song who was Emperor Gong's younger brother. The Yuan forces commanded by Han Chinese General Zhang Hongfan led a predominantly Han navy to defeat the Song loyalists at the battle of Yamen in 1279. The last Song emperor drowned bringing an end to the Song dynasty. The conquest of the Song reunited northern and southern China for the first time in three hundred years.
The Yuan dynasty created a "Han Army" (漢軍) out of defected Jin troops and an army of defected Song troops called the "Newly Submitted Army" (新附軍).
Kublai's government faced financial difficulties after 1279. Wars and construction projects had drained the Mongol treasury. Efforts to raise and collect tax revenues were plagued by corruption and political scandals. Mishandled military expeditions followed the financial problems. Kublai's second invasion of Japan in 1281 failed because of an inauspicious typhoon. Kublai botched his campaigns against Annam Champa and Java but won a Pyrrhic victory against Burma. The expeditions were hampered by disease an inhospitable climate and a tropical terrain unsuitable for the mounted warfare of the Mongols. The Trần dynasty which ruled Annam (Đại Việt) defeated the Mongols at the Battle of Bạch Đằng (1288). Annam Burma and Champa recognized Mongol hegemony and established tributary relations with the Yuan dynasty.
Internal strife threatened Kublai within his empire. Kublai Khan suppressed rebellions challenging his rule in Tibet and the northeast. His favorite wife died in 1281 and so did his chosen heir in 1285. Kublai grew despondent and retreated from his duties as emperor. He fell ill in 1293 and died on 18 February 1294.
Successors after Kublai
For a more comprehensive list see List of Yuan emperors.
Following the conquest of Dali in 1253 the former ruling Duan dynasty were appointed as Maharajah. Local chieftains were appointed as Tusi recognized as imperial officials by the Yuan Ming and Qing-era governments principally in the province of Yunnan. Succession for the Yuan dynasty however was an intractable problem later causing much strife and internal struggle. This emerged as early as the end of Kublai's reign. Kublai originally named his eldest son Zhenjin as the Crown Prince but he died before Kublai in 1285. Thus Zhenjin's third son with the support of his mother Kökejin and the minister Bayan succeeded the throne and ruled as Temür Khan or Emperor Chengzong from 1294 to 1307. Temür Khan decided to maintain and continue much of the work begun by his grandfather. He also made peace with the western Mongol khanates as well as neighboring countries such as Vietnam which recognized his nominal suzerainty and paid tributes for a few decades. However the corruption in the Yuan dynasty began during the reign of Temür Khan.
Külüg Khan (Emperor Wuzong) came to the throne after the death of Temür Khan. Unlike his predecessor he did not continue Kublai's work largely rejecting his objectives. Most significantly he introduced a policy called "New Deals" focused on monetary reforms. During his short reign (1307–11) the government fell into financial difficulties partly due to bad decisions made by Külüg. By the time he died China was in severe debt and the Yuan court faced popular discontent.
Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan
The fourth Yuan emperor Buyantu Khan (born Ayurbarwada) was a competent emperor. He was the first Yuan emperor to actively support and adopt mainstream Chinese culture after the reign of Kublai to the discontent of some Mongol elite. He had been mentored by Li Meng a Confucian academic. He made many reforms including the liquidation of the Department of State Affairs (尚書省) which resulted in the execution of five of the highest-ranking officials. Starting in 1313 the traditional imperial examinations were reintroduced for prospective officials testing their knowledge on significant historical works. Also he codified much of the law as well as publishing or translating a number of Chinese books and works.
Gegeen Khan and Yesün Temür
Emperor Gegeen Khan Ayurbarwada's son and successor ruled for only two years from 1321 to 1323. He continued his father's policies to reform the government based on the Confucian principles with the help of his newly appointed grand chancellor Baiju. During his reign the Da Yuan Tong Zhi (《大元通制》; Comprehensive Institutions of the Great Yuan) a huge collection of codes and regulations of the Yuan dynasty begun by his father was formally promulgated. Gegeen was assassinated in a coup involving five princes from a rival faction perhaps steppe elite opposed to Confucian reforms. They placed Yesün Temür (or Taidingdi) on the throne and after an unsuccessful attempt to calm the princes he also succumbed to regicide.
Before Yesün Temür's reign China had been relatively free from popular rebellions after the reign of Kublai. Yuan control however began to break down in those regions inhabited by ethnic minorities. The occurrence of these revolts and the subsequent suppression aggravated the financial difficulties of the Yuan government. The government had to adopt some measure to increase revenue such as selling offices as well as curtailing its spending on some items.
Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür
When Yesün Temür died in Shangdu in 1328 Tugh Temür was recalled to Khanbaliq by the Qipchaq commander El Temür. He was installed as the emperor (Emperor Wenzong) in Khanbaliq while Yesün Temür's son Ragibagh succeeded to the throne in Shangdu with the support of Yesün Temür's favorite retainer Dawlat Shah. Gaining support from princes and officers in Northern China and some other parts of the dynasty Khanbaliq-based Tugh Temür eventually won the civil war against Ragibagh known as the War of the Two Capitals. Afterwards Tugh Temür abdicated in favour of his brother Kusala who was backed by Chagatai Khan Eljigidey and announced Khanbaliq's intent to welcome him. However Kusala suddenly died only four days after a banquet with Tugh Temür. He was supposedly killed with poison by El Temür and Tugh Temür then remounted the throne. Tugh Temür also managed to send delegates to the western Mongol khanates such as Golden Horde and Ilkhanate to be accepted as the suzerain of Mongol world. However he was mainly a puppet of the powerful official El Temür during his latter three-year reign. El Temür purged pro-Kusala officials and brought power to warlords whose despotic rule clearly marked the decline of the dynasty.
Due to the fact that the bureaucracy was dominated by El Temür Tugh Temür is known for his cultural contribution instead. He adopted many measures honoring Confucianism and promoting Chinese cultural values. His most concrete effort to patronize Chinese learning was founding the Academy of the Pavilion of the Star of Literature (奎章閣學士院) first established in the spring of 1329 and designed to undertake "a number of tasks relating to the transmission of Confucian high culture to the Mongolian imperial establishment". The academy was responsible for compiling and publishing a number of books but its most important achievement was its compilation of a vast institutional compendium named Jingshi Dadian (《經世大典》). Tugh Temür supported Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism and also devoted himself in Buddhism.
After the death of Tugh Temür in 1332 and subsequent death of Rinchinbal (Emperor Ningzong) the same year the 13-year-old Toghon Temür (Emperor Huizong) the last of the nine successors of Kublai Khan was summoned back from Guangxi and succeeded to the throne. After El Temür's death Bayan became as powerful an official as El Temür had been in the beginning of his long reign. As Toghon Temür grew he came to disapprove of Bayan's autocratic rule. In 1340 he allied himself with Bayan's nephew Toqto'a who was in discord with Bayan and banished Bayan by coup. With the dismissal of Bayan Toqto'a seized the power of the court. His first administration clearly exhibited fresh new spirit. He also gave a few early signs of a new and positive direction in central government. One of his successful projects was to finish the long-stalled official histories of the Liao Jin and Song dynasties which were eventually completed in 1345. Yet Toqto'a resigned his office with the approval of Toghon Temür marking the end of his first administration and he was not called back until 1349.
Decline of the empire
The final years of the Yuan dynasty were marked by struggle famine and bitterness among the populace. In time Kublai Khan's successors lost all influence on other Mongol lands across Asia while the Mongols beyond the Middle Kingdom saw them as too Chinese. Gradually they lost influence in China as well. The reigns of the later Yuan emperors were short and marked by intrigues and rivalries. Uninterested in administration they were separated from both the army and the populace and China was torn by dissension and unrest. Outlaws ravaged the country without interference from the weakening Yuan armies.
From the late 1340s onwards people in the countryside suffered from frequent natural disasters such as droughts floods and the resulting famines and the government's lack of effective policy led to a loss of popular support. In 1351 the Red Turban Rebellion led by Song loyalists started and grew into a nationwide uprising and the Song loyalists established a renewed Song dynasty in 1351 with its capital at Kaifeng. In 1354 when Toghtogha led a large army to crush the Red Turban rebels Toghon Temür suddenly dismissed him for fear of betrayal. This resulted in Toghon Temür's restoration of power on the one hand and a rapid weakening of the central government on the other. He had no choice but to rely on local warlords' military power and gradually lost his interest in politics and ceased to intervene in political struggles. He fled north to Shangdu from Khanbaliq (present-day Beijing) in 1368 after the approach of the forces of the Míng dynasty (1368–1644) founded by Zhu Yuanzhang in the south. Zhu Yuanzhang was a former Duke and commander in the army of the Red Turban Song dynasty and assumed power as Emperor after the death of the Red Turban Song Emperor Han Lin'er who had tried to regain Khanbaliq which eventually failed and who died in Yingchang (located in present-day Inner Mongolia) two years later (1370). Yingchang was seized by the Ming shortly after his death. Some royal family members still live in Henan today.
The Prince of Liang Basalawarmi established a separate pocket of resistance to the Ming in Yunnan and Guizhou but his forces were decisively defeated by the Ming in 1381. By 1387 the remaining Yuan forces in Manchuria under Naghachu had also surrendered to the Ming dynasty. The Yuan remnants retreated to Mongolia after the fall of Yingchang to the Ming in 1370 where the name Great Yuan (大元) was formally carried on and is known as the Northern Yuan dynasty.
The structure of the Yuan government took shape during the reign of Kublai Khan (1260–1294). While some changes took place such as the functions of certain institutions the essential components of the government bureaucracy remained intact from the beginning to the end of the dynasty in 1368.
The system of bureaucracy created by Kublai Khan reflected various cultures in the empire including that of the Hans Khitans Jurchens Mongols and Tibetan Buddhists. While the official terminology of the institutions may indicate the government structure was almost purely that of native Chinese dynasties the Yuan bureaucracy actually consisted of a mix of elements from different cultures. The Chinese-style elements of the bureaucracy mainly came from the native Tang Song as well as Khitan Liao and Jurchen Jin dynasties. Chinese advisers such as Liu Bingzhong and Yao Shu gave strong influence to Kublai's early court and the central government administration was established within the first decade of Kublai's reign. This government adopted the traditional Chinese tripartite division of authority among civil military and censorial offices including the Central Secretariat (Zhongshu Sheng) to manage civil affairs the Privy Council (樞密院; Shūmì Yuàn) to manage military affairs and the Censorate to conduct internal surveillance and inspection. The actual functions of both central and local government institutions however showed a major overlap between the civil and military jurisdictions due to the Mongol traditional reliance on military institutions and offices as the core of governance. Nevertheless such a civilian bureaucracy with the Central Secretariat as the top institution that was (directly or indirectly) responsible for most other governmental agencies (such as the traditional Chinese-style Six Ministries) was created in China. At various times another central government institution called the Department of State Affairs (Shangshu Sheng) that mainly dealt with finance was established (such as during the reign of Külüg Khan or Emperor Wuzong) but was usually abandoned shortly afterwards.
While the existence of these central government departments and the Six Ministries (which had been introduced since the Sui and Tang dynasties) gave a Sinicized image in the Yuan administration the actual functions of these ministries also reflected how Mongolian priorities and policies reshaped and redirected those institutions. For example the authority of the Yuan legal system the Ministry of Justice did not extend to legal cases involving Mongols and Semuren who had separate courts of justice. Cases involving members of more than one ethnic group were decided by a mixed board consisting of Chinese and Mongols. Another example was the insignificance of the Ministry of War compared with native Chinese dynasties as the real military authority in Yuan times resided in the Privy Council.
The Kingdom of Qocho Kingdom of Dali Chiefdom of Bozhou other Tusi kingdoms and Goryeo were ruled by kings inside the Yuan empire.
|Literal meaning||"Yuan dynasty"|
|Literal meaning||Great Yuan|
|Alternative official full name:|
Dai Yuwan Yeqe Mongɣul Ulus
|Literal meaning||"Great Yuan" (Middle Mongol transliteration of Chinese "Dà Yuán") Great Mongol State|
In 1271 Kublai Khan imposed the name Great Yuan (Chinese: 大元; pinyin: Dà Yuán; Wade–Giles: Ta-Yüan) establishing the Yuan dynasty. "Dà Yuán" (大元) is from the clause "大哉乾元" (pinyin: dà zāi Qián Yuán; lit. 'Great is Qián the Primal') in the Commentaries on the Classic of Changes section regarding the first hexagram Qián (乾). The counterpart in the Mongolian language was Dai Ön Ulus also rendered as Ikh Yuan Üls or Yekhe Yuan Ulus. In Mongolian Dai Ön (Middle Mongol transliteration of Chinese "Dà Yuán") was often used in conjunction with the "Yeke Mongghul Ulus" (lit. "Great Mongol State") which resulted in the form ᠳᠠᠢᠥᠨᠶᠡᠬᠡᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ (Dai Ön Yeqe Mongɣul Ulus) meaning "Great Yuan Great Mongol State". As per modern historiographical norm the "Yuan dynasty" refers exclusively to the realm based in China. However the Chinese-style dynastic name "Great Yuan" was meant to be applied to the entire Mongol Empire. This usage is seen in the writings including non-Chinese texts produced during the time of the Yuan dynasty. In spite of this "Yuan dynasty" is rarely used in the broad sense of the definition by modern scholars due to the de facto disintegrated nature of the Mongol Empire.
The Yuan dynasty is also known by westerners as the "Mongol dynasty" or "Mongol Dynasty of China" similar to the names "Manchu dynasty" or "Manchu Dynasty of China" which were used by westerners for the Qing dynasty. Furthermore the Yuan is sometimes known as the "Empire of the Great Khan" or "Khanate of the Great Khan" which particularly appeared on some Yuan maps since Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Great Khan. Nevertheless both terms can also refer to the khanate within the Mongol Empire directly ruled by Great Khans before the actual establishment of the Yuan dynasty by Kublai Khan in 1271.
A rich cultural diversity developed during the Yuan dynasty. The major cultural achievements were the development of drama and the novel and the increased use of the written vernacular. The political unity of China and much of central Asia promoted trade between East and West. The Mongols' extensive West Asian and European contacts produced a fair amount of cultural exchange. The other cultures and peoples in the Mongol World Empire also very much influenced China. It had significantly eased trade and commerce across Asia until its decline; the communications between Yuan dynasty and its ally and subordinate in Persia the Ilkhanate encouraged this development. Buddhism had a great influence in the Yuan government and the Tibetan-rite Tantric Buddhism had significantly influenced China during this period. The Muslims of the Yuan dynasty introduced Middle Eastern cartography astronomy medicine clothing and diet in East Asia. Eastern crops such as carrots turnips new varieties of lemons eggplants and melons high-quality granulated sugar and cotton were all either introduced or successfully popularized during the Yuan dynasty.
Western musical instruments were introduced to enrich Chinese performing arts. From this period dates the conversion to Islam by Muslims of Central Asia of growing numbers of Chinese in the northwest and southwest. Nestorianism and Roman Catholicism also enjoyed a period of toleration. Buddhism (especially Tibetan Buddhism) flourished although Taoism endured certain persecutions in favor of Buddhism from the Yuan government. Confucian governmental practices and examinations based on the Classics which had fallen into disuse in north China during the period of disunity were reinstated by the Yuan court probably in the hope of maintaining order over Han society. Advances were realized in the fields of travel literature cartography geography and scientific education.
Certain Chinese innovations and products such as purified saltpetre printing techniques porcelain playing cards and medical literature were exported to Europe and Western Asia while the production of thin glass and cloisonné became popular in China. The Yuan exercised a profound influence on the Chinese Ming dynasty. The Ming Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang (1368–97) admired the Mongols' unification of China and adopted its garrison system.
Aside from the ancient Roman embassies the first recorded travels by Europeans to China and back date from this time. The most famous traveler of the period was the Venetian Marco Polo whose account of his trip to "Cambaluc " the capital of the Great Khan and of life there astounded the people of Europe. The account of his travels Il milione (or The Million known in English as the Travels of Marco Polo) appeared about the year 1299. Some doubted the accuracy of Marco Polo's accounts due to the lack of mentioning the Great Wall of China tea houses which would have been a prominent sight since Europeans had yet to adopt a tea culture as well the practice of foot binding by the women in capital of the Great Khan. Recent studies however show that Polo's account is largely accurate and unique.
The Yuan undertook extensive public works. Among Kublai Khan's top engineers and scientists was the astronomer Guo Shoujing who was tasked with many public works projects and helped the Yuan reform the lunisolar calendar to provide an accuracy of 365.2425 days of the year which was only 26 seconds off the modern Gregorian calendar's measurement. Road and water communications were reorganized and improved. To provide against possible famines granaries were ordered built throughout the empire. The city of Beijing was rebuilt with new palace grounds that included artificial lakes hills and mountains and parks. During the Yuan period Beijing became the terminus of the Grand Canal of China which was completely renovated. These commercially oriented improvements encouraged overland and maritime commerce throughout Asia and facilitated direct Chinese contacts with Europe. Chinese travelers to the West were able to provide assistance in such areas as hydraulic engineering. Contacts with the West also brought the introduction to China of a major food crop sorghum along with other foreign food products and methods of preparation.
The Yuan dynasty was the first time that non-native Chinese people ruled all of China. In the historiography of Mongolia it is generally considered to be the continuation of the Mongol Empire. Mongols are widely known to worship the Eternal Heaven and according to the traditional Mongolian ideology Yuan is considered to be "the beginning of an infinite number of beings the foundation of peace and happiness state power the dream of many peoples besides it there is nothing great or precious." In traditional historiography of China on the other hand the Yuan dynasty is usually considered to be the legitimate dynasty between the Song dynasty and the Ming dynasty. Note however Yuan dynasty is traditionally often extended to cover the Mongol Empire before Kublai Khan's formal establishment of the Yuan in 1271 partly because Kublai had his grandfather Genghis Khan placed on the official record as the founder of the dynasty or Taizu (Chinese: 太祖). Despite the traditional historiography as well as the official views (including the government of the Ming dynasty which overthrew the Yuan dynasty) there also exist Chinese people[who?] who did not consider the Yuan dynasty as a legitimate dynasty of China but rather as a period of foreign domination. The latter believe that Hans were treated as second-class citizens  and that China stagnated economically and scientifically.
The dynasty chose white as its imperial color which corresponds to the Metal element according to the theory of the Five Elements (wuxing). Note that the Metal element does not follow from the Song's dynastic element Five in the creation sequence of the five elements. Instead it follows from the Jin Dynast's dynastic element Earth. Although the Yuan did not openly announce it its choice of white as its imperial color suggests that it considered Jin another conquest dynasty rather than the Han-Chinese Song dynasty as its rightful predecessor.
The dragon clothing of Imperial China was used by the Ilkhanids the Chinese Huangdi (Emperor) title was used by the Ilkhanids due to heavy clout upon the Mongols of the Chinese system of politics. Seals with Chinese characters were created by the Ilkhanids themselves besides the seals they received from the Yuan dynasty which contain references to a Chinese government organization.
See also: Society of the Mongol Empire
Since its invention in 1269 the 'Phags-pa script a unified script for spelling Mongolian Tibetan and Chinese languages was preserved in the court until the end of the dynasty. Most of the Emperors could not master written Chinese but they could generally converse well in the language. The Mongol custom of long standing quda/marriage alliance with Mongol clans the Onggirat and the Ikeres kept the imperial blood purely Mongol until the reign of Tugh Temur (Emperor Wenzong) whose mother was a Tangut concubine. The Mongol Emperors had built large palaces and pavilions but some still continued to live as nomads at times. Tugh Temür was an example of a Yuan emperor who actively sponsored cultural activities; including in his imperial capacity and in his personal activities such as writing poetry painting reading Chinese classical texts and ordering the compilation of books.
The average Mongol garrison family of the Yuan dynasty seems to have lived a life of decaying rural leisure with income from the harvests of their Chinese tenants eaten up by costs of equipping and dispatching men for their tours of duty. The Mongols practiced debt slavery and by 1290 in all parts of the Mongol Empire commoners were selling their children into slavery. Seeing this as damaging to the Mongol nation Kublai in 1291 forbade the sale abroad of Mongols. Kublai wished to persuade the Chinese that he was becoming increasingly sinicized while maintaining his Mongolian credentials with his own people. He set up a civilian administration to rule built a capital within China supported Chinese religions and culture and devised suitable economic and political institutions for the court. But at the same time he never abandoned his Mongolian heritage.
In the China of the Yuan or Mongol era various important developments in the arts occurred or continued in their development including the areas of painting mathematics calligraphy poetry and theater with many great artists and writers being famous today. Due to the coming together of painting poetry and calligraphy at this time many of the artists practicing these different pursuits were the same individuals though perhaps more famed for one area of their achievements than others. Often in terms of the further development of landscape painting as well as the classical joining together of the arts of painting poetry and calligraphy the Song dynasty and the Yuan dynasty are linked together.
In Chinese painting during the Yuan dynasty there were many famous painters. In the area of calligraphy many of the great calligraphers were from the Yuan dynasty era. In Yuan poetry the main development was the qu which was used among other poetic forms by most of the famous Yuan poets. Many of the poets were also involved in the major developments in the theater during this time and the other way around with people important in the theater becoming famous through the development of the sanqu type of qu. One of the key factors in the mix of the zaju variety show was the incorporation of poetry both classical and of the newer qu form. One of the important cultural developments during the Yuan era was the consolidation of poetry painting and calligraphy into a unified piece of the type that tends to come to mind when people think of classical Chinese art. Another important aspect of Yuan times is the increasing incorporation of the then current vernacular Chinese into both the qu form of poetry and the zaju variety show. Another important consideration regarding Yuan dynasty arts and culture is that so much of it has survived in China relatively to works from the Tang dynasty and Song dynasty which have often been better preserved in places such as the Shōsōin in Japan.
There were many religions practiced during the Yuan dynasty such as Buddhism Islam Christianity and Manichaeism. The establishment of the Yuan dynasty had dramatically increased the number of Muslims in China. However unlike the western khanates the Yuan dynasty never converted to Islam. Instead Kublai Khan the founder of the Yuan dynasty favored Buddhism especially the Tibetan variants. As a result Tibetan Buddhism was established as the de facto state religion. The top-level department and government agency known as the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs (Xuanzheng Yuan) was set up in Khanbaliq (modern Beijing) to supervise Buddhist monks throughout the empire. Since Kublai Khan only esteemed the Sakya sect of Tibetan Buddhism other religions became less important. He and his successors kept a Sakya Imperial Preceptor (Dishi) at court. Before the end of the Yuan dynasty 14 leaders of the Sakya sect had held the post of Imperial Preceptor thereby enjoying special power. Furthermore Mongol patronage of Buddhism resulted in a number of monuments of Buddhist art. Mongolian Buddhist translations almost all from Tibetan originals began on a large scale after 1300. Many Mongols of the upper class such as the Jalayir and the Oronar nobles as well as the emperors also patronized Confucian scholars and institutions. A considerable number of Confucian and Chinese historical works were translated into the Mongolian language.
At the same time the Mongols imported Central Asian Muslims to serve as administrators in China the Mongols also sent Hans and Khitans from China to serve as administrators over the Muslim population in Bukhara in Central Asia using foreigners to curtail the power of the local peoples of both lands.
Genghis Khan and the following Yuan emperors forbade Islamic practices like Halal butchering forcing Mongol methods of butchering animals on Muslims and other restrictive degrees continued. Muslims had to slaughter sheep in secret. Genghis Khan directly called Muslims and Jews "slaves" and demanded that they follow the Mongol method of eating rather than the halal method. Circumcision was also forbidden. Jews were also affected and forbidden by the Mongols to eat Kosher.
Among all the [subject] alien peoples only the Hui-hui say “we do not eat Mongol food”. [Cinggis Qa’an replied:] “By the aid of heaven we have pacified you; you are our slaves. Yet you do not eat our food or drink. How can this be right?” He thereupon made them eat. “If you slaughter sheep you will be considered guilty of a crime.” He issued a regulation to that effect ... [In 1279/1280 under Qubilai] all the Muslims say: “if someone else slaughters [the animal] we do not eat”. Because the poor people are upset by this from now on Musuluman [Muslim] Huihui and Zhuhu [Jewish] Huihui no matter who kills [the animal] will eat [it] and must cease slaughtering sheep themselves and cease the rite of circumcision.
The Muslims in the semu class revolted against the Yuan dynasty in the Ispah Rebellion but the rebellion was crushed and the Muslims were massacred by the Yuan loyalist commander Chen Youding. Some Muslim communities had the name in Chinese meaning "barracks" and also meaning "thanks"; many Hui Muslims claim it is because that they played an important role in overthrowing the Mongols and it was named in thanks by the Hans for assisting them.
During the Ming conquest of Yunnan Muslim generals Mu Ying and Lan Yu led Muslim troops loyal to the Ming dynasty against Mongol and Muslim troops loyal to the Yuan dynasty.
Hindu statues were found in Quanzhou dating to the Yuan period.
Politically the system of government created by Kublai Khan was the product of a compromise between Mongolian patrimonial feudalism and the traditional Chinese autocratic-bureaucratic system. Nevertheless socially the educated Chinese elite were in general not given the degree of esteem that they had been accorded previously under native Chinese dynasties. Although the traditional Chinese elite were not given their share of power the Mongols and the Semu people (various allied groups from Central Asia and the western end of the empire) largely remained strangers to the mainstream Chinese culture and this dichotomy gave the Yuan regime a somewhat strong "colonial" coloration. The unequal treatment is possibly due to the fear of transferring power to the ethnic Chinese under their rule. The Mongols and Semuren were given certain advantages in the dynasty and this would last even after the restoration of the imperial examination in the early 14th century. In general there were very few North Chinese or Southerners reaching the highest-post in the government compared with the possibility that Persians did so in the Ilkhanate. Later the Yongle Emperor of the Ming dynasty also mentioned the discrimination that existed during the Yuan dynasty. In response to an objection against the use of "barbarians" in his government the Yongle Emperor answered: "... Discrimination was used by the Mongols during the Yuan dynasty who employed only "Mongols and Tartars" and di
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