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عزيزي زائر دليل الهاتف و بدالة أرقام الإمارات تم إعداد وإختيار هذا الموضوع Bernie Sanders فإن كان لديك ملاحظة او توجيه يمكنك مراسلتنا من خلال الخيارات الموجودة بالموضوع.. وكذلك يمكنك زيارة القسم en, وهنا نبذه عنها en وتصفح المواضيع المتنوعه... آخر تحديث للمعلومات بتاريخ اليوم 29/09/2022

Bernie Sanders

آخر تحديث منذ 4 يوم و 11 ساعة
22 مشاهدة



From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia


Publications


With Huck Gutman Outsider in the White House. London: Verso Books. 2015 [1997]. ISBN 978-1-78478-418-8. OCLC 918986570.
In Robert McChesney; Russell Newman; Ben Scott eds. (2005). "Why Americans Should Take Back the Media". The Future of Media: Resistance and Reform in the 21st Century. Seven Stories Press. ISBN 978-1-58322-679-7. OCLC 57574152.
The Speech: A Historic Filibuster on Corporate Greed and the Decline of Our Middle Class. New York: Bold Type Books. 2015 [2011]. ISBN 978-1-56858-554-3. LCCN 2011920256. OCLC 927456901. OL 25090387M.
Our Revolution: A Future to Believe In. Thomas Dunne Books. 2016. ISBN 978-1-250-13292-5. OCLC 1026148801.
Bernie Sanders Guide to Political Revolution. Henry Holt and Company. 2017. ISBN 978-1-250-13890-3. OCLC 999379791.
Where We Go from Here: Two Years in the Resistance. Gale. 2018. ISBN 978-1-432-86916-8. OCLC 1126540640.

See also



Early career



Political activism







Sanders later described his time in Chicago as "the major period of intellectual ferment in my life." While there he joined the Young People's Socialist League (the youth affiliate of the Socialist Party of America) and was active in the civil rights movement as a student for the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Under his chairmanship the university chapter of CORE merged with the university chapter of the SNCC. In January 1962 he went to a rally at the University of Chicago administration building to protest university president George Wells Beadle's segregated campus housing policy. At the protest Sanders said "We feel it is an intolerable situation when Negro and white students of the university cannot live together in university-owned apartments". He and 32 other students then entered the building and camped outside the president's office. After weeks of sit-ins Beadle and the university formed a commission to investigate discrimination. After further protests the University of Chicago ended racial segregation in private university housing in the summer of 1963.

Joan Mahoney a member of the University of Chicago CORE chapter at the time and a fellow participant in the sit-ins described Sanders in a 2016 interview as "a swell guy a nice Jewish boy from Brooklyn but he wasn't terribly charismatic. One of his strengths though was his ability to work with a wide group of people even those he didn't agree with." He once spent a day putting up fliers protesting police brutality only to notice later that Chicago police had shadowed him and taken them all down. He attended the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom where Martin Luther King Jr. gave the "I Have a Dream" speech. That summer Sanders was fined $25 (equivalent to $209 in 2019) for resisting arrest during a demonstration in Englewood against segregation in Chicago's public schools.

In addition to his civil rights activism during the 1960s and 1970s Sanders was active in several peace and antiwar movements while attending the University of Chicago becoming a member of the Student Peace Union. He applied for conscientious objector status during the Vietnam War; his application was eventually turned down by which point he was too old to be drafted. Although he opposed the war Sanders never criticized those who fought in it and he has long been a strong supporter of veterans' benefits. He also was briefly an organizer with the United Packinghouse Workers of America while in Chicago. He also worked on the reelection campaign of Leon Despres a prominent Chicago alderman who was opposed to mayor Richard J. Daley's Democratic Party machine. Throughout his student years Sanders read the works of many political authors from Thomas Jefferson Abraham Lincoln and John Dewey to Karl Marx and Erich Fromm.


Professional history and early years in Vermont

After graduating from college Sanders returned to New York City where he worked various jobs including Head Start teacher psychiatric aide and carpenter. In 1968 he moved to Stannard Vermont a town small in both area and population (88 residents at the 1970 census) within Vermont's rural Northeast Kingdom region because he had been "captivated by rural life." While there he worked as a carpenter filmmaker and writer who created and sold "radical film strips" and other educational materials to schools. He also wrote several articles for the alternative publication The Vermont Freeman. He lived in the area for several years before moving to the more populous Chittenden County in the mid-1970s. During his 2018 reelection campaign he returned to the town to hold an event with voters and other candidates.


Liberty Union campaigns

Sanders began his electoral political career in 1971 as a member of the Liberty Union Party which originated in the anti-war movement and the People's Party. He ran as the Liberty Union candidate for governor of Vermont in 1972 and 1976 and as a candidate in the special election for U.S. senator in 1972 and in the general election in 1974. In the 1974 senatorial race he finished third (5 901 votes; 4%) behind 33-year-old Chittenden County state's attorney Patrick Leahy (D; 70 629 votes; 49%) and two-term incumbent U.S. Representative Dick Mallary (R; 66 223 votes; 46%).

The 1976 campaign was the zenith of the Liberty Union's influence with Sanders collecting 11 317 votes for governor and the party. His strong performance forced the down-ballot races for lieutenant governor and secretary of state to be decided by the state legislature when its vote total prevented either the Republican or Democratic candidate for those offices from garnering a majority of votes. The campaign drained the finances and energy of the Liberty Union however and in October 1977 less than a year after the 1976 campaign concluded he and the Liberty Union candidate for attorney general Nancy Kaufman announced their retirement from the party. During the 1980 presidential election Sanders served as one of three electors for the Socialist Workers Party in Vermont.

After his resignation from the Liberty Union Party in 1977 Sanders worked as a writer and as the director of the nonprofit American People's Historical Society (APHS). While with the APHS he produced a 30-minute documentary about American labor leader Eugene V. Debs who ran for president five times as the Socialist Party candidate.

Notes



Early life


Bernard Sanders was born on September 8 1941 in the Brooklyn borough of New York City. His father Elias Ben Yehuda Sanders was born in Słopnice Galicia in Austria-Hungary (now part of Poland) to a Jewish working-class family. In 1921 Elias immigrated to the United States where he became a paint salesman. Bernard's mother Dorothy Sanders (née Glassberg) was born in New York City to Jewish immigrant parents from Radzyń Podlaski in modern-day eastern Poland and with roots in Russia.

Sanders became interested in politics at an early age. He said "A guy named Adolf Hitler won an election in 1932.[c] He won an election and 50 million people died as a result of that election in World War II including six million Jews. So what I learned as a little kid is that politics is in fact very important." In the 1940s many of his relatives in German-occupied Poland were murdered in the Holocaust.

Sanders lived in Midwood Brooklyn. He attended elementary school at P.S. 197 where he won a borough championship on the basketball team. He attended Hebrew school in the afternoons and celebrated his bar mitzvah in 1954. His older brother Larry said that during their childhood the family never lacked for food or clothing but major purchases "like curtains or a rug " were not affordable.

Sanders attended James Madison High School where he was captain of the track team and took third place in the New York City indoor one-mile race. In high school he lost his first election finishing last out of three candidates for the student body presidency with a campaign that focused on aiding Korean War orphans. Despite the loss he became active in his school's fundraising activities for Korean orphans including organizing a charity basketball game. Sanders attended high school with economist Walter Block. Not long after his high school graduation his mother died at the age of 46. His father died a few years later in 1962 at the age of 57.

Sanders studied at Brooklyn College for a year in 1959–1960 before transferring to the University of Chicago and graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science in 1964. He has described himself as a mediocre college student because the classroom was "boring and irrelevant " while the community was more important to his education.


Party affiliations


Born into a Democratic-voting family Sanders was first introduced to political activism when his brother Larry joined the Young Democrats of America and campaigned for Adlai Stevenson II in 1956. Sanders joined Vermont's Liberty Union Party in 1971 and was a candidate for several offices never coming close to winning election. He became party chairman but quit in 1977 to become an independent. In 1980 he served as an elector for the Socialist Workers Party. In 1981 Sanders ran as an independent for mayor of Burlington Vermont and defeated the Democratic incumbent; he was reelected three times. Although an independent he endorsed Democratic presidential candidates Walter Mondale in 1984 and Jesse Jackson in 1988. His endorsement of Mondale was lukewarm (telling reporters that "if you go around saying that Mondale would be a great president you would be a liar and a hypocrite") but he supported Jackson enthusiastically. The Washington Post reported that the Jackson campaign helped inspire Sanders to work more closely with the Democratic Party.

Sanders attended the 1983 conference of the Socialist Party USA where he gave a speech.

Sanders first ran for the U.S. House of Representatives in 1988 and for the U.S. Senate in 2006 each time adopting a strategy of winning the Democratic Party primary thereby eliminating Democratic challengers and then running as an independent in the general election. He continued this strategy through his reelection in the 2018 United States Senate election in Vermont. Throughout his tenure in Congress he has been listed as an independent. He caucused with Democrats in the House while refusing to join the party and continues to caucus with Democrats in the Senate. Some conservative southern House Democrats initially barred him from the caucus as they believed that allowing a self-described socialist to join would harm their electoral prospects. He soon came to work constructively with Democrats voting with the party over 90% of the time during his tenure in Congress.

Starting with his 2016 presidential campaign Sanders's announcements suggested that not only was he running as a Democrat but that he would run as a Democrat in future elections. When challenged by Clinton about his party commitment he said "Of course I am a Democrat and running for the Democratic nomination." Since he remained a senator elected as an independent his U.S. Senate website and press materials continued to refer to him as an independent during the campaign and upon his return to the Senate. In October 2017 Sanders said he would run for reelection as an independent in 2018 despite pressure to run as a Democrat. His party status became ambiguous again in March 2019 when he signed a formal "loyalty pledge" to the Democratic Party stating that he was a member of the party and would serve as a Democrat if elected president. He signed the pledge the day after he signed paperwork to run as an independent for reelection to the Senate in 2024.

After Trump's victory in the 2016 elections Sanders suggested the Democratic Party undergo a series of reforms and that it "break loose from its corporate establishment ties and once again become a grass-roots party of working people the elderly and the poor." He drew parallels between his campaign and that of the Labour Party in the 2017 UK general election. He wrote in The New York Times that "the British elections should be a lesson for the Democratic Party" and urged the Democrats to stop holding on to an "overly cautious centrist ideology " arguing that "momentum shifted to Labour after it released a very progressive manifesto that generated much enthusiasm among young people and workers." He had earlier praised Jeremy Corbyn's stance on class issues.


Political positions
























A self-described "democratic socialist" Sanders is a progressive who admires the Nordic model of social democracy and has been a proponent of workplace democracy. He advocates for universal and single-payer healthcare paid parental leave as well as tuition-free tertiary education. He supports lowering the cost of drugs by reforming patent laws to allow cheaper generic versions to be sold in the U.S. He supported the Affordable Care Act though he said it did not go far enough.
In November 2015 he gave a speech at Georgetown University about his view of democratic socialism including its place in the policies of presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Johnson. In defining what democratic socialism means to him Sanders said: "I don't believe government should take over the grocery store down the street or own the means of production but I do believe that the middle class and the working families who produce the wealth of America deserve a decent standard of living and that their incomes should go up not down. I do believe in private companies that thrive and invest and grow in America companies that create jobs here rather than companies that are shutting down in America and increasing their profits by exploiting low-wage labor abroad."

Based on his positions and votes throughout his career many commentators consider his political platform based on tax-funded social benefits and not on social ownership of the means of production. Some have described Sanders's political philosophy as "welfarism" or "social democracy" but not democratic socialism defined as "an attempt to create a property-free socialist society." Some members of various U.S. socialist parties and organizations have said that Sanders is a reformer of capitalism not a socialist. Others distinguish among socialism social democracy and democratic socialism and describe his philosophy as extending from such existing liberal programs in the U.S. as Social Security and Medicare and more consistent with the social democracy found in much of Europe especially the Nordic countries. Noam Chomsky and Thomas Frank have described Sanders as "a New Dealer."[e] Other observers such as Lane Kenworthy and Bhaskar Sunkara suggest that his views are more closely related to those of social democrats.


Climate change

Sanders views global warming as a serious problem and advocates bold action to reverse its effects. He calls for substantial investment in infrastructure with energy efficiency sustainability and job creation as prominent goals. He considers climate change the greatest threat to national security. He said that family planning can help fight climate change. He opposed the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline on the grounds that like the Keystone XL Pipeline it "will have a significant impact on our climate." In 2019 he announced his support for Green New Deal legislation and joined Representatives Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Earl Blumenauer in proposing legislation that would declare climate change a national and international emergency.


Economic issues

Sanders focuses on economic issues such as income and wealth inequality poverty raising the minimum wage universal healthcare cancelling all student debt making public colleges and universities tuition-free by taxing financial transactions and expanding Social Security benefits by eliminating the cap on the payroll tax on all incomes above $250 000. He has become a prominent supporter of laws requiring companies to give their workers parental leave sick leave and vacation time noting that such laws have been adopted by nearly all other developed countries. He also supports legislation that would make it easier for workers to join or form a trade union. He was against the Troubled Asset Relief Program and has called for comprehensive financial reforms such as breaking up "too big to fail" financial institutions restoring Glass–Steagall legislation reforming the Federal Reserve Bank and allowing the Post Office to offer basic financial services in economically marginalized communities.

Believing greater emphasis is needed on labor rights and environmental concerns when negotiating international trade agreements Sanders voted against and has long spoken against NAFTA CAFTA and PNTR with China. He has called them a "disaster for the American worker " saying that they have resulted in American corporations moving abroad. He also opposes the Trans-Pacific Partnership which he says was "written by corporate America and the pharmaceutical industry and Wall Street." On May 1 2019 he tweeted: "Since the China trade deal I voted against America has lost over three million manufacturing jobs. It's wrong to pretend that China isn't one of our major economic competitors."


Foreign relations

On foreign policy Sanders supports reducing military spending while pursuing more diplomacy and international cooperation. He opposed funding Nicaraguan rebels known as contras in the CIA's covert war against Nicaragua's leftist government. He opposed the U.S. invasion of Iraq and has criticized a number of policies instituted during the War on Terror particularly that of mass surveillance and the USA Patriot Act. He criticized Israel's bellicose actions during the 2014 Gaza war and U.S. involvement in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen. On November 15 2015 in response to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)'s attacks in Paris he cautioned against Islamophobia and said "We gotta be tough not stupid" in the war against ISIL adding that the U.S. should continue to welcome Syrian refugees. He criticized the January 2020 drone assassination of Iranian general Qasem Soleimani calling it a dangerous escalation of tensions that could lead to an expensive war.

Sanders supports Palestinians' rights and has criticized Israel on several occasions. In 2020 he described the American Israel Public Affairs Committee as a platform for bigotry and said he would not attend its conference. He condemned Trump's decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital saying "It would dramatically undermine the prospects for an Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement and severely perhaps irreparably damage the United States' ability to broker that peace."

Addressing Westminster College in a September 2017 speech Sanders laid out a foreign policy plan for greater international collaboration adherence to U.S.-led international agreements such as the Paris Agreement and the Iran nuclear deal framework and promoting human rights and democratic ideals. He emphasized the consequences associated with global economic inequality and climate change and urged reining in the use of U.S. military power saying it "must always be a last resort." He also criticized U.S. support for "murderous regimes" during the Cold War such as those in Iran Chile and El Salvador and said that those actions continue to make the U.S. less safe. He also spoke critically of Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. elections and the way President Trump has handled the crisis. He does not consider Turkey a U.S. ally and condemned the Turkish military offensive against U.S.-aligned Kurdish forces in northeastern Syria.


Gun laws

Sanders supports closing the "gun show loophole " banning assault weapons and passing and enforcing universal federal background checks for gun purchases. In 1990 he was supported by the National Rifle Association in his bid to become a U.S. Representative in exchange for opposing both the competing campaign of Peter Smith who had reversed his stance on firearm restrictions and waiting periods for handgun purchases. In 1993 while a U.S. Representative he voted against the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (which established background checks and wait periods) and in 2005 voted for legislation that gave gun manufacturers legal immunity against claims of negligence but as of 2016[update] he has since said that he would support repealing that law. In 1996 he voted against additional funding to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for research on issues related to firearms but in 2016 he called for an increase in CDC funding for the study of gun violence.


Social issues

On social issues Sanders has long taken liberal stances. He considers himself a feminist is pro-choice on abortion and opposes defunding Planned Parenthood. He has denounced institutional racism and called for criminal justice reform to reduce the number of people in prison advocates a crackdown on police brutality and supports abolishing private for-profit prisons and the death penalty. He supports Black Lives Matter. He also supports legalizing marijuana at the federal level. He has advocated for greater democratic participation by citizens campaign finance reform and a constitutional amendment or judicial decision that would overturn Citizens United v. FEC
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